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Discredited HIV/AIDS origins theories

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Discredited HIV/AIDS origins theories

This article contains hypotheses not currently accepted by the majority of the scientific community. For the majority view within the scientific community, see History of HIV/AIDS.

Various fringe theories have arisen to speculate about purported alternative origins for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), with claims ranging from it being due to accidental exposure to supposedly purposeful acts. Several inquiries and investigations have been carried out as a result and each of these theories consequently determined to be based on unfounded and/or false information. HIV has been shown to have evolved from or is closely related to the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in West Central Africa sometime in the early 20th century. HIV was not discovered until the 1980s by a French scientist. Before the 1980s, HIV was an unknown deadly disease.[1]

Contents

  • Discredited Theories 1
    • Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) theory 1.1
    • Oral polio vaccine (OPV) theory 1.2
    • Additional Theories 1.3
  • Prevalence of conspiracy beliefs 2
  • Prominent Endorsers of Discredited Theories 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Discredited Theories

In 1987 there was some consideration given to the possibility that the "Aids epidemic may have been triggered by the mass vaccination campaign which eradicated smallpox". An article[2] in The Times suggested this, quoting an unnamed "adviser to WHO" with "I believe the smallpox vaccine theory is the explanation to the explosion of Aids". It is now thought that the smallpox vaccine causes serious complications for people who already have impaired immune systems, and the Times article described the case of a military recruit with "dormant HIV" who died within months of receiving it. But no citation was provided regarding people who did not previously have HIV. Currently HIV is considered to be a contraindication for the smallpox vaccine—both for an infected person and their sexual partners and household members.[3][4] Some conspiracy theorists propose an expanded hypothesis in which the smallpox vaccine was deliberately contaminated with HIV.[5]
In contrast, a research article was published in 2010 suggesting that it might have been the actual eradication of smallpox and the subsequent ending of the mass vaccination campaign contributed to the sudden emergence of HIV. The theory was the possibility that immunization against smallpox "might play a role in providing an individual with some degree of protection to subsequent HIV infection and/or disease progression."[6][7] Regardless of the effects of the smallpox vaccine itself, its use in practice in Africa is one of the categories of un-sterile injections that may have contributed to the spread and mutation of the immunodeficiency viruses.[8]

Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) theory

The dermatologist Hepatitis B (via the Hepatitis B vaccine) experiments performed on gay and bisexual men between 1978–1981 in major U.S. cities. Cantwell claims that these experiments were directed by Wolf Szmuness, and that there was an ongoing government cover-up of the origins of the AIDS epidemic. Similar theories have been advanced by Robert B. Strecker,[9] Matilde Krim, and Milton William Cooper.

Oral polio vaccine (OPV) theory

In the 1999 version of his OPV AIDS hypothesis, Edward Hooper proposed that early batches of the oral polio vaccine (OPV) grown in cultures of chimpanzee kidney cells, infected with a chimpanzee virus, were the original source of HIV-1 in Central Africa. A vial of the batch most strongly implicated by Hooper was found in storage in the UK, and analysis found no HIV/SIV sequences or chimpanzee cellular components, but did find traces of macaque mitochondria. Analysis of five samples of OPV in storage at the Wistar Institute, including one from a batch used in the Belgian Congo between 1958 and 1960, found no chimpanzee DNA.[10] Other molecular biology and phylogenetic studies also contradict the hypothesis, and scientific consensus regards it as disproven.[11][12][13][14] In 2004 the journal Nature described the hypothesis as "refuted".[15]

Additional Theories

These theories generally attribute HIV's origin to the US government or its contractors.
  • Jakob Segal (1911–1995), a professor at Humboldt University in then-East Germany, proposed that HIV was engineered at a U.S. military laboratory at Fort Detrick, by splicing together two other viruses, Visna and HTLV-1. According to his theory, the new virus, created between 1977 and 1978, was tested on prison inmates who had volunteered for the experiment in exchange for early release. He further suggested that it was through these prisoners that the virus was spread to the population at large. At the end of the cold war, former KGB agents Wassili Nikititsch Mitrochin and Oleg Gordijewski independently revealed that the Fort Detrick hypothesis was a propaganda operation devised by the KGB's First Chief Directorate codenamed "Operation INKEFTION". This revelation was later supported by officer Günther Bohnensack of section X of East Germany's Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung. It is known that Segal was in close contact with Russian KGB officers and Mitrochin mentioned him as a central asset of the operation.[16][17] It is not entirely clear whether Segal pursued the hypothesis independently on his own accord or whether he was simply following orders. Segal himself always denied the latter and kept pursuing the hypothesis even after the operation had been canceled and the Cold War had ended. It is known that Segal was in close contact with Russian KGB officers and Mitrochin mentioned him as a central asset of the operation.[18][19]
  • In Behold a Pale Horse (1991), radio broadcaster and author Milton William Cooper (1943–2001) proposed that AIDS was the result of a conspiracy to decrease the populations of blacks, Hispanics, and homosexuals.[20]
  • The dentist and entrepreneur Leonard G. Horowitz, author of the self-published works Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola. Nature, Accident or Intentional? (1996) and Death in the Air: Globalism, Terrorism and Toxic Warfare (2001), advanced the theory that the AIDS virus was engineered by such U.S. Government defense contractors as Litton Bionetics for the purposes of bio-warfare and "population control". He believes that HIV was deliberately designed in a US military lab in the 1970s for use as a genocidal weapon.

Prevalence of conspiracy beliefs

"Nearly half of the 500 African Americans surveyed said that HIV ... is man-made. ... one-quarter said ... AIDS was produced in a government laboratory, and 12 [said] it was created and spread by the CIA. A slight majority said ... a cure for AIDS is being withheld from the poor. Forty-four percent said people who take the new medicines for HIV are government guinea pigs, and 15 percent said AIDS is a form of genocide ... 75 percent said they believe medical and public health agencies are working to stop the spread of AIDS in black communities." According to Phil Wilson, executive director of the Black AIDS Institute in Los Angeles, conspiracy theories are becoming a barrier to the prevention of AIDS since people start to believe that no matter what the measures they take, they can still be prone to contracting this disease. This makes them less careful when engaging in practices that put them at risk because they believe there is no point.[21]

Prominent Endorsers of Discredited Theories

  • The Nation of Islam endorses the view that governments and pharmaceutical companies have pursued genocidal racist policies including the creation and spread of HIV. Consequently, the group called for a boycott of U.S.-sponsored vaccination programs for children. Leonard Horowitz has been cited as influential in the boycott decision.[22]
  • In 2008, the controversial Reverend Jeremiah Wright cited Leonard Horowitz in support of his view that the U.S. government invented HIV as a means of genocide against black people.
  • The 2004 Nobel Peace Prize laureate and environmental activist Wangari Maathai was asked by a Time magazine interviewer if she stood by a previous alleged claim that "AIDS is a biological weapon manufactured by the developed world to wipe out the black race". Maathai responded, "I have no idea who created AIDS and whether it is a biological agent or not. But I do know things like that don't come from the moon. (...) I guess there is some truth that must not be too exposed."[23] Maathai subsequently issued a written statement in December 2004: "I neither say nor believe that the virus was developed by white people or white powers in order to destroy the African people. Such views are wicked and destructive."[24]
  • In 2000 South Africa's Minister of Health Manto Tshabalala-Msimang received criticism for distributing the chapter from Cooper's book discussing this theory to senior South African government officials.[25] Nicoli Nattrass, a longtime critic of AIDS denialists, criticized Tshabalala-Msimang for lending legitimacy to Cooper's theories and disseminating them in Africa.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sharp, P. M.; Bailes, E.; Chaudhuri, R. R.; Rodenburg, C. M.; Santiago, M. O.; Hahn, B. H. (2001). "The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: Where and when?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 356 (1410): 867–76.  
  2. ^ Wright, Pearce (11 May 1987). "Smallpox vaccine 'triggered Aids virus'".  
  3. ^ Maurer, DM; Harrington, B; Lane, JM (1 September 2003). "Smallpox Vaccine: Contraindications, Administration, and Adverse Reactions". American Family Physician 68 (5): 889–96.  
  4. ^ "Questions and Answers About Smallpox Contraindications and Screening". Emergency Preparedness and Response. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  5. ^ Kalambuka, Angeyo (1 December 2009). "Don't Discount Conspiracy Theories on Origin of Aids".  
  6. ^ Weinstein, RS; Weinstein, MM; Alibek, K; Bukrinsky, MI; Brichacek, Beda (18 May 2010). "Significantly reduced CCR5-tropic HIV-1 replication in vitro in cells from subjects previously immunized with Vaccinia Virus". BMC Immunology (BioMed Central) 11 (1): 23.  
  7. ^ Connor, Steve (19 May 2010). "'"Smallpox vaccine 'helped fight HIV. The Independent (London). Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  8. ^ Marx PA, Alcabes PG, Drucker E (June 2001). "Serial human passage of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the emergence of epidemic human immunodeficiency virus in Africa". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 356 (1410): 911–20.  
  9. ^ "The Strecker Memorandum - AIDS is a man made disease". www.youtube.com. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  10. ^ Sarah Ramsay 28 April 2001 "Cold water downstream from The River" The Lancet 357 (9265) p.1343 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04536-0
  11. ^ Hillis DM (2000). "AIDS. Origins of HIV". Science 288 (5472): 1757–1759.  
  12. ^ Birmingham K (2000). "Results make a monkey of OPV-AIDS theory". Nat Med 6 (10): 1067–1067.  
  13. ^ Cohen J (2001). "AIDS origins. Disputed AIDS theory dies its final death". Science 292 (5517): 615a–615.  
  14. ^ Origin of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website , Accessed 30 January 2007
  15. ^ Worobey M, Santiago M, Keele B, Ndjango J, Joy J, Labama B, Dhed'A B, Rambaut A, Sharp P, Shaw G, Hahn B (2004). "Origin of AIDS: contaminated polio vaccine theory refuted". Nature 428 (6985): 820–820.  
  16. ^ Andrew, Christopher; Vasili Mitrokhin (1999). The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. Basic Books. p. 319.  
  17. ^ Johanna Lutterroth: Aids-Verschwörung. Das Propaganda-Virus des KGB. Spiegel Online, 2012-6-26 (German)
  18. ^ Andrew, Christopher; Vasili Mitrokhin (1999). The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. Basic Books. p. 319.  
  19. ^ Johanna Lutterroth: Aids-Verschwörung. Das Propaganda-Virus des KGB. Spiegel Online, 2012-6-26 (German)
  20. ^  
  21. ^ Fears, Darryl. "Study: Many Blacks Cite AIDS Conspiracy." Washington Post 25 001 2005, A02. Web. 11 Apr. 2013. .
  22. ^ Knight, Peter, Conspiracy Culture: From the Kennedy Assassination to the X-files, p. 202
  23. ^ Faris, Stephan (10 October 2004). "10 Questions: Wangari Maathai". TIME.com/CNN. Retrieved 2007-03-19. 
  24. ^ from the Green Belt Movement website- Wangari Maathai's "The Challenge of AIDS in Africa".
  25. ^ "SA Government steps into Aids row". BBC News. September 14, 2000. Retrieved January 17, 2013. 
  26. ^  

External links

  • Is AIDS a manmade disease?
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