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Bukhori dialect

Bukhori
בוכארי, бухорӣ Bukhori
Native to Israel, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, United States, Afghanistan
Ethnicity Bukharan Jews
Native speakers
60,000 in Israel and Uzbekistan (1995)[1]
50,000 United States (no date)[2]
Hebrew, Cyrillic
Language codes
ISO 639-3 bhh
Glottolog bukh1238[3]

Bukhori (Persian: بخاری‎‎ buxārī, Hebrew script: בוכארי buxori), also known as Bukhari and Bukharian, is a dialect of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia by Bukharian Jews.

Contents

  • General information 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

General information

The location where Bukharic exists is in Central Asia.[4] The language classification of Bukharic is as follows: Indo-European > Indo-Iranian > Iranian > West Iranian > Southwest Iranian > Persian > Tajik > Bukharic.[5]

Bukhori is based on a substrate of classical Persian, with a large number of Hebrew loanwords, as well as smaller numbers of loanwords from other surrounding languages, including Uzbek and Russian. The vocabulary consists of a mixture of Persian, Arabic, Uzbek, and Hebrew words.[6]

At the end of 1987, the total number of speakers was 85,000. In the USSR, there were 45,000 speakers; in Israel, there were 32,000; and in all other countries combined, there were 3,000. One of the dialects of Bukharic is Rahamĭm.[7] Ethnic Tajik minorities exist in many countries, such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Latter Samarkand and Bukhara in Uzbekistan are 2 cities which are particularly populated.[8]

Today, the language is spoken by approximately 10,000 Jews remaining in Uzbekistan and surrounding areas, although most of its speakers reside elsewhere, predominantly in Israel (approximately 50,000 speakers), and the United States.

Like most Jewish languages, traditionally, Bukhori uses the Hebrew alphabet.[9] But throughout the past century, due to Soviet influence, the alphabet used to write Bukhori included Latin (1920s) then the Cyrillic (1940). Additionally, since 1940, when the Bukharian Jewish schools were closed in Central Asia, the use of the Hebrew alphabet outside Hebrew liturgy fell into disuse and Bukharian Jewish publications, such as books and newspapers, began to appear using the Cyrillic alphabet. Today, many older Bukharian Jews who speak Bukharian only know the Cyrillic alphabet when reading and writing Bukharian. The origin of its respective spelling system is talmudic orthography.[10]

During the Soviet Period, communists wanted Hebrew to be the language of culture and instruction in the Republic of Turkestan and in the Soviet’s People Republic of Bukhara. In late 1921, the Turkestani People’s Commissariat of Education ordered that schools for Bukharan Jews to teach in Bukharic and not in Hebrew. In Uzbekistan in 1934, 15 Bukharan Jewish clubs and 28 Bukharan Jewish red teahouses existed. However, in 1938, Bukharic was no longer used as the language for instruction in the schools and in cultural activities.[11]

There were attempts made to bring back Bukharan Jewish culture in the

  • Learn Basic Bukhori
  • Endangered Languages Project
  • Noni padar (Father's bread)
  • MULOQAND
  • Music Examples
  • More Music Examples
  • Bukharian Poem
  • Grisha Abramov Bukharian Jews Miami speech in Bukhoric Bukharan

External links

  1. ^ Bukhori at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., and Barbara F. Grimes, ed. (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (15th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. 
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Bukharic".  
  4. ^ Birnbaum, Salomo A. 2011. Ein Leben für die Wissenschaft. Germany: De Gruyter.
  5. ^ Tolmas, Chana. 2006. Bukharan Jews: history, language, literature, culture. Israel: World Bukharian Jewish Congress.
  6. ^ Michael Shterenshis, p. 85Tamerlane and the Jews
  7. ^ Tolmas, Chana. 2006. Bukharan Jews: history, language, literature, culture. Israel: World Bukharian Jewish Congress.
  8. ^ Ido, Shinji. 2007. Bukharan Tajik. E.C.: LINCOM EUROPA.
  9. ^ http://www.omniglot.com/writing/bukhori.htm
  10. ^ Birnbaum, Salomo A. 2011. Ein Leben für die Wissenschaft. Germany: De Gruyter.
  11. ^ Tolmas, Chana. 2006. Bukharan Jews: history, language, literature, culture. Israel: World Bukharian Jewish Congress.
  12. ^ Tolmas, Chana. 2006. Bukharan Jews: history, language, literature, culture. Israel: World Bukharian Jewish Congress.
  13. ^ Kol Israel website

References

See also

Kol Yisrael (קול ישראל) broadcasts in Bukhori from 12:45 to 13:00 GMT.[13]

Among some Bukharian Jewish youth, especially in the New York City area, there has been a revival of using the Bukharian Jewish language written in a modified Latin alphabet similar to the one developed by Bukharian Jewish linguist and writer, Yakub Kalontarov. Today, youths learning the Bukharian Jewish language sponsored by the Achdut-Unity Club in Queens, New York City, New York, USA, using the modified Latin alphabet.

[12]

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