Breve

˘
Breve
Diacritics
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron, háček( ˇ )
cedilla( ¸ )
circumflex( ˆ )
diaeresis, umlaut( ¨ )
dot( · )
hook, hook above(   ̡   ̢  ̉ )
horn(  ̛ )
iota subscript(  ͅ  )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek, nosinė( ˛ )
perispomene(  ͂  )
ring( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing( )
smooth breathing( ᾿ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( ◌̸ )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora(  ҄ )
pokrytie(  ҇ )
titlo(  ҃ )
Gurmukhī diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
chandrakkala( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Ă ă
Ĕ ĕ
Ğ ğ
Ĭ ĭ
Ŏ ŏ
Ŭ ŭ

A breve (, less often ; French: ; from the Latin brevis “short, brief”) is the diacritic mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle. As used in Ancient Greek, it is also called vrachy or brachy. It resembles the caron (the wedge or háček in Czech), but is rounded, while the caron has a sharp tip.

Compare caron:

  • Ǎ ǎ Ě ě Ǐ ǐ Ǒ ǒ Ǔ ǔ

with breve:

  • Ă ă Ĕ ĕ Ĭ ĭ Ŏ ŏ Ŭ ŭ

Contents

  • Length 1
  • Other uses 2
  • Encoding 3
  • Notes 4
  • See also 5
  • External links 6

Length

The breve sign indicates a short vowel, as opposed to the macron ¯ which indicates long vowels, in academic transcription. It is often used this way in dictionaries and textbooks of Latin, Ancient Greek, Tuareg and other languages. (However, there is a frequent convention of indicating only the long vowels: it is then understood that a vowel with no macron is short.)

In Cyrillic script, a breve is used for Й. In Belarusian, it is used for both the Cyrillic Ў (semivowel U) and in the Latin (Łacinka) Ŭ. Ў was also used in Cyrillic Uzbek under the Soviet Union. The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet uses a breve on Ӂ to represent a voiced postalveolar affricate /d͡ʒ/ (corresponding to g before a front vowel in the Latin script for Moldovan). In Chuvash, a breve is used for Cyrillic letters Ӑ (A-breve) and Ӗ (E-breve). In Itelmen orthography, it is used for Ӑ, О̆ and Ў. Note that traditional Cyrillic breve differs in shape, being thicker on the edges of the curve and thinner in the middle, from the Latin one. In Latin types, the shape becomes “ears”-like.[1]

In Esperanto, u with breve (ŭ) represents a non-syllabic u in diphthongs //, analogous to Belarusian ў.

In the transcription of Sinhala, the breve over an m or an n indicates a prenasalized consonant; for example, n̆da is used to represent [ⁿda].

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, a breve over a phonetic symbol is used to indicate extra shortness.

Other uses

In other languages, it is used for other purposes.

Encoding

Unicode and HTML code (decimal numeric character reference) for breve characters.

Name Letter Unicode HTML
Breve (single)   ̆ U+02D8 ˘
Combining breve   ̆ U+0306 ̆
Combining breve below   ̮ U+032E ̮
Combining inverted breve below   ̯ U+032F ̯
Latin
A-breve Ă
ă
U+0102
U+0103
Ă
ă
E-breve Ĕ
ĕ
U+0114
U+0115
Ĕ
ĕ
I-breve Ĭ
ĭ
U+012C
U+012D
Ĭ
ĭ
O-breve Ŏ
ŏ
U+014E
U+014F
Ŏ
ŏ
U-breve Ŭ
ŭ
U+016C
U+016D
Ŭ
ŭ
Azerbaijani, Tatar, Turkish
G-breve Ğ
ğ
U+011E
U+011F
Ğ
ğ
Vietnamese
A-sắc-breve
U+1EAE
U+1EAF

A-huyền-breve
U+1EB0
U+1EB1

A-hỏi-breve
U+1EB2
U+1EB3

A-ngã-breve
U+1EB4
U+1EB5

A-nặng-breve
U+1EB6
U+1EB7

Cyrillic
Short I Й
й
U+0419
U+0439
Й
й
Short U Ў
ў
U+040E
U+045E
Ў
ў
A-breve Ӑ
ӑ
U+04D0
U+04D1
Ӑ
ӑ
Ye-breve Ӗ
ӗ
U+04D6
U+04D7
Ӗ
ӗ
O-breve О̆
о̆
U+041E U+0306
U+043E U+0306
О̆
о̆
Greek
Alpha with vrachy
U+1FB8
U+1FB0

Iota with vrachy
U+1FD8
U+1FD0

Upsilon with vrachy
U+1FE8
U+1FE0

Arabic, Hittite, Akkadian, Egyptian transliteration
H-breve below
U+1E2A
U+1E2B

In LaTeX the controls \u{o} and \breve{o} puts a breve over the letter o.

Notes

  1. ^ Бреве кириллическое, "кратка" [Cyrillic breve ("kratka")] (in Russian). ParaType. 
  2. ^ For example, that word 한글 han-geul is romanized in McCune-Reischauer as han'gŭl. The spelling han-geul is based on South Korea's Revised Romanization of Korean adopted in 2000 in part for ease in computer use, not on McCune-Reischauer. It is common, for convenience, to omit writing all diacritical marks in McCune-Reishchauer including breves, in which case the word is spelled hangul not han'gŭl. North Korea uses a variant of McCune-Reischauer that also utilizes breves for those two vowels.

See also

External links

  • Diacritics Project — All you need to design a font with correct accents
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