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Battle of Karameh

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Title: Battle of Karameh  
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Subject: Israeli–Palestinian conflict, Khalil al-Wazir, Israel Defense Forces, Benjamin Netanyahu, Palestinian fedayeen
Collection: 1968 in Jordan, Battles Involving Jordan, Conflicts in 1968, War of Attrition
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Battle of Karameh

Battle of Karameh
Part of the War of Attrition

3D depiction of the battle on display at the Jordanian Martyr's Memorial and Museum
Date March 21, 1968
Location Karameh, Jordan
Result

Both sides claim victory [1]

  • Destruction of Karameh camp[2]
  • Failure to capture Yasser Arafat[2]
  • Israeli raid repelled[3] or withdrawal after achieving main objectives[4]
  • PLO propaganda victory[5]
Belligerents
Israel

Jordan
PLO

Commanders and leaders
Levi Eshkol
Uzi Narkis
Moshe Dayan
King Hussein
Amer Khammash Mashour Haditha Asad Ghanma
Yasser Arafat
Abu Iyad
Abu Jihad
Abu Ali Iyad
Strength

About 15,000[6]

(1 armored brigade
1 infantry brigade
1 paratroop battalion
1 engineering battalion
5 artillery battalions)

About 15,000 [7]

(1 infantry division
1 armored brigade)

900[8]–1000[9] guerrillas
Casualties and losses
28[10]- 33 dead[11]
69[10] - 161 wounded[11]
27 tanks damaged, 4 left behind[12]
2 half-tracks[13]
6 armored vehicles[14]
1 aircraft[15]

Jordan:
84 dead[16]
250 wounded[17]
4 captured[18]
30 tanks[19]
2 aircraft[19]

PLO:
100–200 dead[20]
~100 wounded
~150 captured[21]
175 buildings destroyed [22]

The Battle of Karameh (Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF) in the Jordanian town of Karameh on 21 March 1968, during the War of Attrition.[23] It was planned by Israel as two concurrent raids on PLO camps, one in Karameh and one in the distant village of Safi — codenamed Operation Inferno (Hebrew: מבצע תופת‎) and Operation Asuta (מבצע אסותא), respectively — but the former turned into a full-scale battle.[24]

After the Six-Day War in 1967, the PLO and Fatah started to step up their guerrilla attacks against Israel from Jordanian soil taking the borderline Karameh town as their headquarters.[25] The goal of the invasion was to destroy Karameh camp and capture Yasser Arafat in reprisal for the raids, which culminated in an Israeli school bus hitting a mine.[26] However, when Jordan saw the size of the raiding forces it was lead to the assumption that Israel had another goal of capturing Balqa Governorate to create a Golan Heights similar situation.[27][28] Israel assumed that the Jordanian Army would ignore the invasion, but the latter fought alongside the Palestinians and opened heavy fire that inflicted losses upon the Israeli forces.[29] This engagement marked the first known deployment of suicide bombers by Palestinian forces.[30] The Israelis were repelled at the end of a day's battle, having destroyed most of the Karameh camp and taken around 150 PLO prisoners.[31] The battle resulted in the issuance of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 248, which condemned Israel for violating the cease-fire line.[32]

Both sides declared victory. On a tactical level, the battle went in Israel's favor[33] and the destruction of the Karameh camp was achieved.[10] However, the relatively high casualties were a considerable surprise for the Israel Defense Forces and was stunning to the Israelis.[34] Although the Palestinians were not victorious on their own, King Hussein let the Palestinians take credit.[35][36][37] The Palestinians used this to establish their national claims.[38] King Hussein after the battle proclaimed, "I think we may reach a position where we are all fedayeen." However, afterwards the PLO's strength began to grow, and Palestinians spoke openly of taking over Jordan as part of Palestine. This situation eventually led to Black September in Jordan, in 1970.[29]

Contents

  • Background 1
  • Prelude 2
  • Battle 3
    • Casualties 3.1
    • Israeli command structure 3.2
  • Aftermath 4
  • Bibliography 5
  • In Culture 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Background

Following the seizure of the West Bank from Jordan in the June 1967 Six-Day War, Israel destroyed the existing Fatah networks there. In early 1968, however, Fatah guerrillas began raiding Israel from bases on the Jordanian side of the river. Most of these attacks were blocked by the IDF. At times, Jordanian Army infantry and artillery units gave the Fatah squads covering fire, leading to frequent direct skirmishes between the IDF and the Jordanian Army.[39]

On 14–15 February, Jordanian mortars hit several Israeli settlements in the Beit Shean Valley and Jordan Valley. Israeli artillery and air forces retaliated against Jordanian bases and artillery batteries, as well as the American-financed East Ghor Canal (now known as the King Abdullah Canal). As a result, thousands of Jordanian farmers fled eastwards, and fedayeen moved into the valley. An American-sponsored ceasefire was arranged, and King Hussein declared he would prevent these groups from using Jordan as a base for attack.[40]

In February, he sent twenty carloads of troops and police to order a Fatah unit to leave Karameh. When it arrived, the column found itself surrounded by men wielding machine guns; their commander said "You have three minutes to decide whether you leave or die". They withdrew.[4] By March, several hundred civilians lived in the camp, along with about 900 guerrillas, mostly from Fatah, and PLO leader Yasser Arafat, who had his headquarters there.[8]

In Israel, Chief of the Military Intelligence Directorate Aharon Yariv stated that a raid would damage Fatah's prestige. On the other hand, Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban and his chief of bureau Gideon Rafael — mindful of an adverse American reaction — worried a raid could result in innocent civilian deaths and be a political disservice to Israel. Chief of Staff (Ramatkal) Haim Bar-Lev promised a "clean action". Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan asked for a "principal approval" for a raid, but this was denied by the cabinet. He warned the other ministers that a bus might strike a mine.[41] On 18 March, an Israeli school bus was blown up by a mine near Be'er Ora in the Arava, killing two adults and wounding ten children.[8] This was the 38th Fatah operation in little more than three months.[29] That night, the cabinet approved the attack. The U.S. tried to prevent it by forwarding Israel a message from King Hussein. Israeli Prime Minister Levi Eshkol called in the cabinet for further counseling; only the National Religious Party leader Haim-Moshe Shapira vocally opposed it, while Education Minister Zalman Aran opposed it but remained silent.[41]

Prelude

On March 4, Jordanian intelligence began to detect Israeli activity near the border, as IDF troops began to concentrate near the Allenby Bridge (King Hussein Bridge) and Damia Bridge (Adam Bridge). Jordan ordered the 1st Infantry Division to take up positions near those bridges and around Karameh.[42] On March 17, Dayan warned that the Arabs were preparing for a "new wave of terror," which Israel would take steps to contain if King Hussein of Jordan could not. Eshkol repeated that message to the Knesset, and on the same day, Israeli Ambassador Yosef Tekoah filed two complaints with the United Nations against what he termed the Arabs' "repeated acts of aggression."[43]

By March 20, Jordan had identified parts of the Israeli 7th Armored Brigade, 60th Armored Brigade, 35th Paratroop Brigade, 80th Infantry Brigade, a combat engineer battalion and five artillery battalions between those bridges. The Jordanians assumed the Israelis were planning an attack with a drive on Amman, and the army took up positions near the bridges, with the 60th Armored Brigade joining the 1st Infantry Division. Jordan also added most of its armored car, antitank and artillery units to the 1st Infantry Division. The total firepower was 105 Patton tanks and 88 artillery pieces. The infantry divisions were deployed near the bridges, each with a tank company. The artillery was mostly deployed on the higher Jordan Valley ridges overlooking Karameh for topological advantage.[42]

The Israeli forces amounted to less than a brigade of armor, an infantry brigade, a paratroop battalion, an engineering battalion and five battalions of artillery. The units were divided into four task forces. The largest of these was to cross the Allenby Bridge and reach Karameh from the south; a second one was to cross the Damiyah Bridge, and reach Karameh from the north, thus completing a pincer move. Meanwhile, paratroopers were to be lifted by helicopters into the town while the fourth force would make a diversionary attack at King Abdullah Bridge to draw the Jordanian forces from Karameh and to cover the main attack.[42]

Prior to the attack, the Israeli Air Force (IAF) dropped leaflets telling the Jordanian army that Israel had no intention to hurt them, and that they should not intervene;[44] the leaflets went unheeded. Time magazine reported the fedayeen had been warned in advance by Egyptian intelligence, and most of the 2,000 Arab commandos who used Karameh as a training base had pulled back into the surrounding hills to snipe at the Israelis. Some 200 guerrillas stayed inside to defend the town.[43] Later, Arafat's deputy, Abu Iyad, claimed in his memoirs that he and Arafat had been tipped off about the Israeli attack by Jordanian officers, who learned it from the CIA.[45]

Battle

Map showing the Jordanian positions (green) and the Israeli advance (blue)

At 5:30 AM on March 21, the Israeli forces attacked simultaneously on the three bridges.[46] Combat engineers built a pontoon bridge in the north and the troops crossed the river.[47] The Israeli spearheads pushed across the Allenby Bridge and advanced towards Shunat Nimreen.

At 6:30 AM, Israeli helicopters started landing the bulk of the paratrooper battalion north of Karameh.[48] An Israeli aircraft was supposed to drop leaflets addressed to Fatah, after the paratroopers had surrounded the town; however, due to difficult weather conditions, the helicopters flying the paratroopers arrived twenty minutes too late.[49] Met with resistance by Fatah commandos and Jordanian regulars supported by Jordanian artillery, the paratroopers suffered heavy losses.

When the southern task force began their drive north towards Karameh, they encountered a Jordanian infantry brigade supported by armor, artillery and antitank weapons. The Israeli Air Force launched airstrikes, but was only able to inflict minor damage on the dug-in Jordanians. Fighting from their entrenched positions, the Jordanians repelled several Israeli assaults.[47]

In the south, Jordanian artillery shelling prevented the Israelis from erecting another pontoon bridge on the site of the Abdullah bridge, halting the Israeli advance there.[9] (Israeli Colonel Gonen of the 7th Armored later claimed the action on the Abdullah bridge was merely a diversion.)

After crossing the Allenby Bridge, the 7th Armored Brigade spread in three directions from Shuna: One or more companies drove north to Karameh. An infantry battalion and a tank battalion moved east to block the Salt road. And another infantry battalion moved south to assist the force trying to break across the Abdullah Bridge.

Meanwhile, the force that crossed the Damia Bridge established itself on the east bank. Engineers began constructing a new bridge, and the force advanced east to the Musri junction. After taking Musri, their intended advance south to Karameh was repulsed by the northern brigade of the Jordanian 1st Division.

The force driving on Karameh via the Allenby bridge broke through and proceeded to the town, arriving shortly before 7:00.[11] By 8:00 the Israeli forces had taken control of the town, which turned out to be a bigger PLO base than the Israelis expected.[50] Combined with the paratroopers, this Israeli force engaged in heavy fighting against the central brigade of the 1st division and a number of Fatah fighters. Some of the paratroopers and armor drove north to operate in the Fatah camp. The paratroopers destroyed most of the camp; many of the Palestinians, including Arafat, fled eastward.[2]

The rest of the Allenby Bridge force was blocked to the east and south of Shuna, by elements of the 1st Division's central and southern brigades, and by a tank battalion from Salt.[48]

Jordanian artillery battery at Karameh, 21 March 1968

A small force of Israeli infantry and armor, on the right flank of Israeli forces invading from the south, tried to protect it from attacks by the Jordanian forces deployed near the King Abdullah bridge. The Jordanians attacked with some armor, but the Israelis put up resistance, and the battle turned into a stalemate.

A large force of Israeli infantry and armor went east to block the road from Salt to the Allenby bridge, and they encountered the Jordanian 60th Armored Brigade trying to join the defense of Karameh. In the resulting battle, the Jordanians lost eight Patton tanks without destroying any Israeli tanks, then withdrew to the hills to dig in and continue firing down on the Israelis.

The Israeli Air Force launched airstrikes against Jordanian armor and artillery positions, but was unable to stop the firing.[2] Within the next two hours, Israeli artillery fire and airstrikes were launched against Jordanian defenses on the Musri-Karameh road, the Salt road, and east of Abdullah Bridge. The Israelis also consolidated their hold on Karameh with airstrikes and artillery, and began demolishing the camp.[51] A total of 175 houses were blown up.[11]

Meanwhile, Operation Asuta was mounted against a few smaller guerrilla bases south of the Dead Sea, near Safi, where the school bus had struck the mine. The bases were raided by Israeli ground forces with close air support. About 20 Jordanian soldiers and policemen and 20 Fatah fighters were killed, and 27 were taken prisoner. The Israelis suffered no casualties.[11]

Frustrated in their hope to entrap the entire PLO force, the Israelis soon pulled out, but had to fight their way back to Israeli territory.[43] At 11:00 the Israelis began to withdraw, with Sikorsky H-34 helicopters evacuating the troops.[44] Because orders came down to recover as many vehicles as possible, they only completed their withdrawal by 20:40.[9]

Casualties

Jordanian soldiers surrounding Israeli abandoned or destroyed trucks and tanks which were later put on display in Amman at the Hashemite Plaza.

Casualties estimates vary:

  • Israel: Chaim Herzog and Kenneth Pollack estimate 28 dead and 69 wounded;[50][52] Shabtai Teveth gives 32 killed and 70 wounded out of a force of 1,000 soldiers.[53] Benny Morris writes that Israel lost 33 dead and 161 wounded.[11] 27 Israeli tanks were damaged by Jordanian artillery, 4 of which were left behind, two half-tracks, six armored cars and 1 aircraft; 113 Squadron Dassault Ouragan,[52] although the pilot succeeded in parachuting to safety.[50] A Mirage had to crash land.[11]
  • Jordan: Zeev Maoz and Morris cite a figure of some 84 Jordanian soldiers killed and another 250 wounded. Four were captured. 30 tanks were destroyed and two Jordanian aircraft were shot down.[54]
  • PLO: Herzog: 200 dead, 150 captured; Morris: 156 dead, 141 captured;[11] Pollack: 100 dead, 100 wounded, 120–150 captured.[52] According to Morris, a further 20 PLO guerillas were killed and 27 captured during the corresponding Operation Asuta. Teveth states 170 killed and 130 taken prisoner.

Israeli command structure

Israel Defense Forces — Lieutenant General Haim Bar-Lev
Central Command — Major General (Aluf) Uzi Narkiss
80th Brigade (elements)[9] Colonel Rafael Eitan Tovia Force (reduced battalion)  
Uzi Force (reduced battalion)  
7th Armored Brigade[9] Colonel Shmuel Gonen Rotem Company  
Plada Company  
Shimshi Company  
Eitan Platoon  
35th Paratroop Brigade[55] Colonel Danny Mat 890th Battalion Lieutenant Colonel Dan Shomron
50th Battalion Lieutenant Colonel Tubi Shapira
202th Battalion (elements) Lieutenant Colonel Zvi Bar
Paratroopers Reconnaissance Unit Captain Matan Vilnai
Air Force (elements)[44] Major General (Aluf)
Mordechai Hod
116 "Flying Wing" Squadron (leaflet drop)  
101 "First Fighter" Squadron  
105 "Scorpion" Squadron  
110 "Northern Knights" Squadron  
113 "Hornet" Squadron  
117 "First Jet" Squadron  
119 "Bat" Squadron  
124 "Rolling Sword" Squadron  
114 "Night Leaders/Super Frelon" Squadron  
Combat Engineering Corps (elements)  
Artillery Corps (elements)  

Aftermath

The destroyed Karameh camp after the battle

Israel accomplished its objective of destroying the Fatah camp,[50][2][56] and on a tactical level, the battle did indeed end in Israel's favor.[33] "The Karama operation exposed the vulnerability of PLO units deployed along the Jordan River and so they moved their concentrations up into the mountains. This imposed additional strains on them and made their operations into the West Bank even more involved and difficult than they had been hitherto."[10] Politically however, Israel was heavily condemned by the world opinion. U.S. Ambassador to the UN, Arthur Goldberg, said "We believe that the military counteractions such as those which have just taken place, on a scale out of proportion to the acts of violence that preceded it, are greatly to be deplored."[43] US Ambassador to Israel, Walworth Barbour, said that in twenty years time, a historian would write that day down as the beginning of the destruction of Israel. Eban reported the Ambassabor's statement to the cabinet, and Menachem Begin said such an utterance must not be cited in a cabinet meeting.[41]

King Hussein after checking an abandoned Israeli tank

The battle of Karameh did provide Fatah with a propaganda boost.[41] [38] Uzi Narkis, who commanded the operation, resigned as chief of the Central Command for a position in the Jewish Agency shortly after the battle.[24]

Jordan claimed to have won the battle and stopped an Israeli drive on Amman.[57] Hussein said on television after the battle, "I think we may reach a position where we are all fedayeen", while Arafat said "What we have done is to make the world... realize that the Palestinian is no longer refugee number so and so, but the member of a people who hold the reins of their own destiny and are in a position to determine their own future".[38] Palestinians and Arabs generally considered the battle a psychological victory over the IDF, which had been seen as 'invincible' until then, and recruitment to guerilla units soared.[58] Fatah reported that 5,000 volunteers applied to join within 48 hours of the battle.[38] By late March, there were nearly 20,000 fedayeen in Jordan.[4]

A monument in Karameh commemorating the Jordanian fighters.

According to Lt. Col. Arik Regev, chief of Central Command's operations branch,

[59]

Iraq and Syria offered training programs for several thousand guerrillas. The

  • "S/PV.1406 of 23 March 1968 — The United Nations discussion on the battle". Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  • "Jordan celebrates the 31st anniversary of al-Karamah battle". Arabic News. 1999-03-22. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  • The Karameh action, from the documentary "The Pillar of Fire" (in עברית). 2008-03-12. Event occurs at 140 seconds. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 

External links

  1. ^ Bruno Basílio Rissi, Débora Hanna F. de Lima, Mila Pereira Campbell, Raquel Fanny Bennet Fagundes, Wladimir Santana Fernandes (2015-08-01). Long-lasting peaces: Overcoming the war-peace hiatus for a sustainable future. Art Letras. Retrieved 2015-10-26. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Pollack (2002), p. 333
  3. ^ "GUERRILLAS BACK AT JORDAN CAMP; Attack by Israelis Failed to Destroy Base at Karameh or Wipe Out Commandos". The New York Times (The New York Times). 1968-03-28. Retrieved 2015-10-26. 
  4. ^ a b c d "A Brotherhood of Terror". Time. 1968-03-29.  
  5. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 570.  
  6. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts (2005-05-12). Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, The: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  7. ^ Fruchter-Ronen,I. (2008). Black September: The 1970-41 Events and their Impact on the Formation of Jordanian National Identity. Civil Wars, v.10 (3), pp. 244-260. Figure on 246.
  8. ^ a b c Morris (1999), p. 368
  9. ^ a b c d e Wallach, Jeuda; Ayalon, Avraham; Yitzhaki, Aryeh (1980). "Operation Inferno". In Evyatar Nur. Carta's Atlas of Israel (in עברית). Volume 2 — The Second Decade 1961–1971.  
  10. ^ a b c d Herzog, The Arab-Israeli Wars page 205
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Morris(1999), p. 369
  12. ^ Benny Morris (2011-05-25). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1998. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  13. ^ Zeev Maoz, Defending the Holy Land: A Critical Analysis of Israel's Security & Foreign ... University of Michigan Press (2006) 244-246
  14. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts (2005-05-12). Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, The: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  15. ^ Benny Morris (2011-05-25). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1998. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  16. ^ Benny Morris (2011-05-25). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1998. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  17. ^ Benny Morris (2011-05-25). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1998. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  18. ^ Zeev Maoz, Defending the Holy Land: A Critical Analysis of Israel's Security & Foreign ... University of Michigan Press (2006) 244-246
  19. ^ a b Zeev Maoz, Defending the Holy Land: A Critical Analysis of Israel's Security & Foreign ... University of Michigan Press (2006) 244-246
  20. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts (2005-05-12). Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, The: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  21. ^ Benny Morris (2011-05-25). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1998. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  22. ^ Benny Morris (2011-05-25). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1998. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  23. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts (2005-05-12). Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, The: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  24. ^ a b Ben-Tzedef, Eviatar (2008-03-24). "Inferno at Karameh". nfc (in עברית). Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  25. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts (2005-05-12). Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, The: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  26. ^ Cath Senker (2004). The Arab-Israeli Conflict. Black Rabbit Books. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  27. ^ Patrick Tyler (2012-09-18). Fortress Israel: The Inside Story of the Military Elite Who Run the Country--and Why They Can't Make Peace. Macmillan. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  28. ^ "الذكرى الثالثة والأربعون لمعركة الكرامة الخالدة". Petra News Agency (in Arabic). Ammon News. 2011-03-20. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  29. ^ a b c d "1968: Karameh and the Palestinian revolt". Telegraph. 2002-05-16. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  30. ^ Saada, Tass & Merrill, Dean Once an Arafat Man: The True Story of How a PLO Sniper Found a New Life Illinois 2008 pp4-6 ISBN 1414323611
  31. ^ "GUERRILLAS BACK AT JORDAN CAMP; Attack by Israelis Failed to Destroy Base at Karameh or Wipe Out Commandos". The New York Times (The New York Times). 1968-03-28. Retrieved 2015-10-26. 
  32. ^ "The situation in the Middle East". United Nations Security Council. 1968. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  33. ^ a b Zeev Maoz, Defending the Holy Land, A Critical Analysis of Israel’s Security and Foreign Policy, University of Michigan Press, 2006 @page 246
  34. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts (2005-05-12). Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, The: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  35. ^ Kathleen Sweet (2008-12-23). Aviation and Airport Security: Terrorism and Safety Concerns, Second Edition. CRC Press. Retrieved 2015-10-27. 
  36. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts (2005-05-12). Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, The: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  37. ^ "The Israeli Assessment". Time. 1968-12-13.  
  38. ^ a b c d Neff, Donald. "Battle of Karameh Establishes Claim of Palestinian Statehood". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (March 1998). pp. 87–88. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  39. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Roberts (2005-05-12). Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, The: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. Retrieved 2015-10-25. 
  40. ^ Morris (1999), pp. 367–368
  41. ^ a b c d Segev, Tom. "It started at Karameh". Haaretz (in עברית). Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  42. ^ a b c Pollack (2002), pp. 331–332
  43. ^ a b c d "Foray into Jordan". Time. 1968-03-29.  
  44. ^ a b c "Operation Inferno". iaf.org.il (in עברית). Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  45. ^ Morris (1999), pp. 368–369
  46. ^ Dupuy (2002), p. 352
  47. ^ a b Pollack (2002), pp. 332–333
  48. ^ a b Dupuy (2002), p. 353
  49. ^ "Bloody battle at Karameh". Sayeret Zanhanim. Archived from the original on 21 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-03.  (Hebrew)
  50. ^ a b c d Herzog (1982), p. 205
  51. ^ Dupuy (2002), p. 354
  52. ^ a b c Pollack (2002), p. 334
  53. ^ Teveth, Shabtai (1969/1970) The Cursed Blessing. The story of Israel's occupation of the West Bank. Weidenfield & Nicolson. SBN 297 00150 7. Translated from Hebrew by Myra Bank. Page 261.
  54. ^ Zeev Maoz, Defending the Holy Land: A Critical Analysis of Israel's Security & Foreign ... University of Michigan Press (2006) 244-246
  55. ^ "Between the Wars — Jordan" (in עברית). Retrieved 2008-09-13. 
  56. ^ James Rothrock, Live by the sword: Israel’s struggle for existence in the Holy Land, WestBow Press (2011) p.53
  57. ^ Pollack (2002), pp. 333–334
  58. ^ A.I.Dawisha, Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair, Princeton University Press, 2003 p.258
  59. ^ "Debacle in the desert". Haaretz. 1968-03-29. Retrieved 2011-05-13. 
  60. ^ Kurz (2006), p. 56.
  61. ^ Kurz (2006), p. 55
  62. ^ Pollack (2002), p. 335
  63. ^ "Battle of Al Karameh". palestineposterproject.org. 

References

The Battle of Karameh was the subject of many artworks, stamps and posters.[63]

"Karameh Battle" by Mustafa Al-Hallaj, 1969

In Culture

  • Dupuy, Trevor N. (2002). Elusive Victory: The Arab-Israeli Wars, 1947-1974. Military Book Club. 
  • Herzog, Chaim; Shlomo Gazit (2005-07-12). The Arab-Israeli Wars: War and Peace in the Middle East. Vintage. p. 560.  
  • Kurz, Anat N. (2006-01-30). Fatah and the Politics of Violence: The Institutionalization of a Popular Struggle. Sussex Academic Press. p. 228.  
  • Morris, Benny (August 2001). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001. Vintage. p. 800.  
  • Pollack, Kenneth M. (2004-09-01). Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948–1991. Bison Books. p. 717.  

Bibliography

After the battle, Fatah began to engage in communal projects to achieve popular affiliation.[61] The battle of Karameh and the subsequent increase in the PLO's strength are considered to have been important catalysts for the 1970 events of Black September in Jordan.[29][62]

[60] Within a year after the battle, Fatah had branches in about eighty countries.[4]

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