World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Bain-marie

Article Id: WHEBN0000004990
Reproduction Date:

Title: Bain-marie  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Oil bath, Double steaming, Gentle frying, Sweating (cooking), Meringue
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Bain-marie

A bain-marie on a stovetop

A bain-marie (pronounced: ; also known as a water bath), a type of heated bath, is a piece of equipment used in science, industry, and cooking to heat materials gently and gradually to fixed temperatures, or to keep materials warm over a period of time.

Description

Schematic of an improvised double boiler, as used in outdoor cooking

The bain-marie comes in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and types, but traditionally is a wide, cylindrical, usually metal container made of three or four basic parts: a handle, an outer (or lower) container that holds the working liquid, an inner (or upper), smaller container that fits inside the outer one and which holds the material to be heated or cooked, and sometimes a base underneath. Under the outer container of the bain-marie (or built into its base) is a heat source.

Typically the inner container is immersed about halfway into the working liquid.

The smaller container, filled with the substance to be heated, fits inside the outer container, filled with the working liquid (usually water), and the whole is heated at, or below, the base, causing the temperature of the materials in both containers to rise as needed. The insulating action of the water helps to keep contents of the inner pot from boiling or scorching.

When the working liquid is water and the bain-marie is used at sea level, the maximum temperature of the material in the lower container will not exceed 100 degrees Celsius (212 F), the boiling point of water at sea level. Using different working liquids (oils, salt solutions, etc.) in the lower container will result in different maximum temperatures.

Alternatives

A contemporary alternative to the traditional, liquid-filled bain-marie is the electric "dry-heat" bain-marie, heated by elements below both pots. The dry-heat form of electric bains-marie often consumes less energy, requires little cleaning, and can be heated more quickly than traditional versions. They can also operate at higher temperatures, and are often much less expensive than their traditional counterparts.

Electric bains-marie can also be wet, using either hot water or vapor, or steam, in the heating process. The open, bath-type bain-marie heats via a small, hot-water tub (or "bath"), and the vapour-type bain-marie heats with scalding-hot steam.

Culinary applications

An improvised bain-marie being used to melt chocolate
  • Chocolate can be melted in a bain-marie to avoid splitting and caking onto the pot. Special dessert bains-marie have a thermally insulated container and are used as a chocolate fondue.
  • Cheesecake is often baked in a bain-marie to prevent the top from cracking in the centre.
  • Custard may be cooked in a bain-marie to keep a crust from forming on the outside of the custard before the interior is fully cooked. In the case of the crème brûlée, placing the ramekins in a roasting pan and filling the pan with hot water until it is 1/2 to 2/3 of the way up the sides of the ramekins transfers the heat to the custard gently, which prevents the custard from curdling. The humidity from the steam that rises as the water heats helps keep the top of the custard from becoming too dry.[1]
  • Classic warm sauces, such as Hollandaise and beurre blanc, requiring heat to emulsify the mixture but not enough to curdle or "split" the sauce, are often cooked using a bain-marie.
  • Some charcuterie such as terrines and pâtés are cooked in an "oven-type" bain-marie.
  • Thickening of condensed milk, such as in confection-making, is done easily in a bain-marie.
  • Controlled-temperature bains-marie can be used to heat frozen breast milk before feedings.
  • Bains-marie can be used in place of chafing dishes for keeping foods warm for long periods of time, where stovetops or hot plates are inconvenient or too powerful.
  • A bain-marie can be used to re-liquefy hardened honey by placing a glass jar on top of any improvised platform sitting at the bottom of a pot of gently boiling water.
  • Bains-marie are often used to keep food warm for serving.

Origin

An alchemical balneum Mariae, or Mary’s bath, from Coelum philosophorum, Philip Ulstad, 1528, Chemical Heritage Foundation

Bains-marie were originally developed for use in the practice of alchemy,[2][3] when alchemists needed a way to heat materials slowly and gently. In that early form of chemical science, it was believed by many that the best way to heat certain materials was to mimic the supposed natural processes, occurring in the Earth's core, by which precious metals were believed to be germinated.

The name comes from the medieval-Latin term balneum (or balineum) Mariae—literally, Mary's bath—from which the French bain de Marie, or bain-marie, is derived. There are many theories as to how the name Marie came to be associated with this equipment:

  • The device's invention has been popularly attributed to Mary the Jewess, an ancient alchemist traditionally; according to The Jewish Alchemists,[4] Maria the Jewess was an ancient alchemist who lived in Alexandria. Mythical traditions have suggested that she was Miriam, the sister of Moses.[2]
  • Alternatively, according to culinary writer Giuliano Bugialli, the term comes from the Italian bagno maria, named after Maria de' Cleofa, who developed the technique in Florence in the sixteenth century.,[5] but earlier mentions (e.g. by Arnold de Villanova in the fourteenth century) seem to invalidate that attribution.
  • Finally, some consider the name a reference to the Virgin Mary, whose proverbial gentleness can be likened to the gentleness of this cooking technique.[2]

See also

Notes

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c
  3. ^
  4. ^ Patai, Raphael, The Jewish Alchemists: A History and Source Book, Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ
  5. ^ Giuliano Bugialli, The Fine Art of Italian Cooking, p.33. New York: Gramercy 2005.

References

  • José María de Jaime Lorén. 2003. Epónimos científicos. Baño María. María La Judía. Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera. (Moncada, Valencia).
  • EN 60335-2-50 Household and similar electrical appliances – Safety – Part 2.50: Particular requirements for commercial electric bains-marie (73/23/EEC Low Voltage Directive)

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.