Archon of athens

"Athenian tyranny" redirects here. For the tyrants who ruled Athens in late 6th century BCE, see Peisistratos.

Archon (Gr. ἄρχων, pl. ἄρχοντες) means "ruler" or "lord," frequently used as the title of a specific public office.[1] In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called Eponymous archon. The following tables list the archons of Athens.

In Athens a system of nine concurrent Archons evolved, led by three respective remits over the civic, military, and religious affairs of the state: the three office holders being known as the Eponymos archon (Ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων; the "name" ruler, who gave his name to the year in which he held office), the Polemarch ("war ruler"), and the Archon Basileus ("king ruler").[2][3] The six others were the Thesmothétai, Judicial Officers. Originally these offices were filled from the wealthier classes by elections every ten years. During this period the eponymous Archon was the chief magistrate, the Polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the Archon Basileus was responsible for some civic religious arrangements, and for the supervision of some major trials in the law courts. After 683 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the Archōn Epōnymos. (Many ancient calendar systems did not number their years consecutively.)


The archon was the chief magistrate in many Greek cities, but in Athens there was a council of archons which exerted a form of executive government. From the late eighth century BC there were three archons: the archon eponymous, the polemarch (replaced in 501 BC by ten strategoi), and the archon basileus (the ceremonial vestige of the Athenian monarchy).[4] These positions were filled from the aristocracy (the Eupatridae) by elections every ten years. During this period Archon Eponymous was the chief magistrate, the Polemarch was the head of the armed forces, and the Archon Basileus was responsible for the civic religious arrangements.

After 508 BC the offices were held for only a single year, and the year was named after the archon eponymous. The archon eponymous was the chief archon, and presided over meetings of the Boule and Ecclesia, the ancient Athenian assemblies. The archon eponymous remained the titular head of state even under the democracy, though with much reduced political importance. Under the reforms of Solon, himself archon eponymous in 594 BC, there was a brief period during which the number of archons rose to ten. After 457 BC ex-archons were automatically enrolled as life members of the Areopagus, though that assembly was no longer extremely important politically at that time.

One of the archons oversaw the procedure for ostracism after 487 BC.[5] An archon's court was in charge of epikleroi.[6] Other duties of the archons included supervising the Panathenaea and Dionysia.[7]

List of archons

In the following list of Archons, years where the name of the archon is unknown are identified as such. Years listed as "anarchy" mean that there was literally "no archon". There are various conflicting reconstructions of lists; sources for this list are given at the end. Note that the term of an archon covered two of our years, beginning in the spring or summer and continuing into the next spring or summer. The polemarch or strategoi, basileus, and thesmothetai (the six assistants to the archons) are also listed, where known.

Archaic period

Main article: Archaic Greece

Life archons

The later Athenian tradition varies on the exact position of this line; they held archonship for life, sometimes referred to as "Perpetual Archon," and exercised the sacral powers of kingship, as did the archon basileus later. The historicity of any of this ancient list may be reasonably doubted by the layman and capable of different interpretations, but where there may be no doubt as to historical documents. Aristotle indicates that Medon and Acastus may have ruled as king rather than Archon.[8]

Year Archon Other notable information
1068- 1048 BC Medon (Μέδων)[9] First ruler of Attica after the Greek Dark Ages.
1048 - 1012 BC Acastus (Ἄκαστος)[10][11] Troy VIIb2 destroyed (ca. 1120 BC).
1012 - 993 BC Archippus[12]
993- 952 BC Thersippus[13]
952- 922 BC Phorbas (Φόρβας) Troy VIIb3: deserted (ca. 950 BC)
922- 892 BC Megacles (Μεγακλῆς)
892- 864 BC Diognetus
864- 845 BC Pherecles[14] Homer composes the Iliad[15] and Odyssey. (c. 850 BC)[16][17]
845- 825 BC Ariphron
824- 797 BC Thespieus (Θεσπιεύς)
796- 778 BC Agamestor[18]
778- 755 BC Aeschylus (Αἰσχύλος) First Olympiad[19][20] (776 BC)
755- 753 BC Alcmaeon (Ἀλκμαίων)

Decennial archons

In 753 BC the perpetual archonship by the Eupatridae[21] (essentially tyrants (kingship[22])) was limited to 10 years (the "decennial archons"):[23]

Year Archon Other notable information
753 BC-743 BC Charops[24][25] In Rome, Romulus, the first ruler of the city, takes power.[26]
743 BC-733 BC Aesimides[27] In Messenia, First Messenian War begins.
733 BC-723 BC Clidicus[28] Diaulos footrace introduced at the Olympics. (724 BC)
723 BC-713 BC Hippomenes[29]
713 BC-703 BC Leocrates
703 BC-693 BC Apsander[30] Hesiod writes "Theogony" (c. 700 BC).
693 BC-683 BC Eryxias Boxing added to the Olympics. (688 BC)[31] Chalcedon colony founded (685 BC).

Annual archons

After 683 BC the archonship was limited to one year. Archons were chosen from the Areopagus council and resided in the Prytaneum.

Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
682 BC-681 BC Creon[32]
681 BC-680 BC Lysiades 4-horse Chariot racing added to the Olympics.
680 BC-679 BC Tlesias
679 BC-671 BC Unknown Greek's 25th Olympiad (676 BC)
671 BC-670 BC Leostratus
670 BC-669 BC Unknown
669 BC-668 BC Pisistratus
668 BC-667 BC Autosthenes
667 BC-666 BC Unknown
666 BC-665 BC Unknown Polemarchus (archon) assassinates King Polydorus of Sparta[33]
665 BC-664 BC Unknown
664 BC-663 BC Miltiades
663 BC-659 BC Unknown
659 BC-658 BC Miltiades
658 BC-645 BC Unknown Cypselus becomes the first tyrant of Corinth (657 BC). Earliest Greek-chronicled solar eclipse (648 BC).
645 BC-644 BC Dropides (644 BC) Terpander[34] the Lesbian[35] starts developing the music of the lyre.
644 BC-639 BC Unknown
639 BC-638 BC Damasias Thales was born[36][37]
638 BC-634 BC Unknown
634 BC-633 BC Epaenetus
633 BC-632 BC Unknown
632 BC-631 BC Megacles Cylon attempts to become tyrant
631 BC-624 BC Unknown
624 BC-623 BC Aristaechmus[38] Birth of Thales (c. 624 BC)
623 BC-621 BC Unknown


Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
621 BC-620 BC Draco Draco reforms the legal code[39][40]
620 BC-615 BC Unknown
615 BC-614 BC Heniochides
614 BC-605 BC Unknown Anaximander born (c. 610 BC)
605 BC-604 BC Aristocles
604 BC-600 BC Unknown
600 BC-599 BC Critias Cleisthenes of Sicyon rules.
599 BC-597 BC Unknown
597 BC-596 BC Cypselus
596 BC-595 BC Telecles
595 BC-594 BC Philombrotus[41][42] First Sacred War begins.[43]
594 BC-593 BC Solon Solon reforms Draco's code, then leaves Athens, resulting in weak archons and anomie
593 BC-592 BC Dropides
592 BC-591 BC Eucrates
591 BC-590 BC Simon
590 BC-589 BC anarchy
589 BC-588 BC Phormion
588 BC-587 BC Philippus
587 BC-586 BC Unknown
586 BC-585 BC anarchy
585 BC-582 BC Unknown Pythian Games reorganised at Delphi.
582 BC-581 BC Damasias Isthmian Games founded at Corinth.
581 BC-580 BC Damasias Damasias is expelled during his second term
580 BC-579 BC anarchy Committee of 10 men serves jointly as archons[44]
579 BC-578 BC anarchy
578 BC-577 BC Unknown
577 BC-576 BC Archestratidas
576 BC-570 BC Unknown Greek's 50th Olympiad (576 BC)
570 BC-569 BC Aristomenes
569 BC-566 BC Unknown
566 BC-565 BC Hippocleides
565 BC-561 BC Unknown
561 BC-560 BC Comeas[45] Pisistratus becomes tyrant. Rhapsodist at Sicyon.[46]
560 BC-559 BC Hegestratus
559 BC-558 BC Hegesias
559 BC-556 BC Unknown
556 BC-555 BC Hegesias Pisistratus is expelled but returns and becomes tyrant again.
555 BC-554 BC Euthidemus
554 BC-548 BC Unknown Pisistratus expelled around 550 BC
548 BC-547 BC Erxicleides
547 BC-546 BC Thespius Pisistratus becomes tyrant again
546 BC-545 BC Phormion
545 BC-535 BC Unknown
536 BC-535 BC Phrynaeus
535 BC-533 BC Unknown
533 BC-532 BC Thericles
532 BC-528 BC Unknown
528 BC-527 BC Philoneus Hippias[47] and Hipparchus[48] succeed Pisistratus as tyrants
527 BC-526 BC Onetorides
526 BC-525 BC Hippias
525 BC-524 BC Cleisthenes[49] Reforms of Cleisthenes.[50]
524 BC-523 BC Miltiades
523 BC-522 BC Calliades
522 BC-521 BC Pisistratus
521 BC-518 BC Unknown
518 BC-517 BC Hebron
517 BC-511 BC Unknown Hipparchus assassinated around 514 BC[51]
511 BC-510 BC Harpactides Hippias overthrown, Athenian democracy established.
510 BC-509 BC Scamandrius
509 BC-508 BC Lysagoras
508 BC-507 BC Isagoras Cleisthenes competes with Isagoras for archonship, but is expelled by Cleomenes I of Sparta
507 BC-506 BC Alcmeon
506 BC-504 BC Unknown
504 BC-503 BC Acestorides
503 BC-501 BC Unknown
501 BC-500 BC Hermocreon
500 BC-499 BC Smyrus Beginning of the Greco-Persian Wars
499 BC-498 BC Lacratides[52][53]
498 BC-497 BC Unknown
497 BC-496 BC Archias
496 BC-495 BC Hipparchus
495 BC-494 BC Philippus
494 BC-493 BC Pythocritus
493 BC-492 BC Themistocles Themistocles begins to build the Athenian navy. End of the Ionian Revolt.
492 BC-491 BC Diognetus First Persian invasion of Greece.
491 BC-490 BC Hybrilides
490 BC-489 BC Phaenippus Battle of Marathon; Stesileus, Callimachus. Callimachus and Miltiades are strategoi. Hellanicus of Mytilene born (c. 490 BC).
489 BC-488 BC Aristides the Just
488 BC-487 BC Anchises
487 BC-486 BC Telesinus[54][55] Megacles ostracism
486 BC-485 BC Ceures
485 BC-484 BC Philocrates
484 BC-483 BC Leostratus Herodotus born (c. 484).
483 BC-482 BC Nicodemus
482 BC-481 BC Unknown
481 BC-480 BC Hypsichides Outcasts forbidden to form cleruchy on the Geraistos[56] and the Scyllaeum.[57][58][59] Xerxes I of Persia invades.[60]

Classical period

Main article: Classical Greece
Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
480 BC-479 BC Calliades Golden Age of Athens begins. Second Persian invasion of Greece begins; Battle of Salamis; Aristides and Themistocles are strategoi.
479 BC-478 BC Xanthippus Battle of Plataea; Aristides is strategos
478 BC-477 BC Timosthenes Delian League founded.
477 BC-476 BC Adimantus
476 BC-475 BC Phaedon
475 BC-474 BC Dromoclides
474 BC-473 BC Acestorides
473 BC-472 BC Menon
472 BC-471 BC Chares
471 BC-470 BC Praxiergus
470 BC-469 BC Demotion
469 BC-468 BC Apsephion
468 BC-467 BC Theagenides
467 BC-466 BC Lysistratus
466 BC-465 BC Lysanias
465 BC-464 BC Lysitheus Sophanes is a strategos
464 BC-463 BC Archedemides
463 BC-462 BC Tlepolemus Cimon is a strategos
462 BC-461 BC Conon Ephialtes reforms the Areopagus, and is assassinated
461 BC-460 BC Euthippus
460 BC-459 BC Phrasicles War with Sparta, the First Peloponnesian War. Thucydides born (c. 460). Callisthenes of Olynthus born (c. 360).
459 BC-458 BC Philocles Phrynicus, Dicaeogenes and Hippodamas are strategoi; Ctesias of Cnidus born (c. 459).
458 BC-457 BC Habron
457 BC-456 BC Mnesitheides
456 BC-455 BC Callias Aeschylus dies
455 BC-454 BC Sosistratus
454 BC-453 BC Ariston
453 BC-452 BC Lysicrates
452 BC-451 BC Chaerephanes
451 BC-450 BC Antidotus Anaxicrates and Cimon are strategoi
450 BC-449 BC Euthydemus
449 BC-448 BC Pedieus Second Sacred War begins.
448 BC-447 BC Philiscus Pericles, Tolmides and Epiteles are strategoi; Peace of Callias ends the Greco-Persian Wars
447 BC-446 BC Timarchides Construction of the Parthenon begins.
446 BC-445 BC Callimachus
445 BC-444 BC Lysimachides[61] Peace between Athens and Sparta. Age of Pericles begins.
444 BC-443 BC Praxiteles Pericles is a strategos
443 BC-442 BC Lysanias Pericles is a strategos
442 BC-441 BC Diphilus Pericles is a strategos
441 BC-440 BC Timocles Pericles and Glaucon are strategoi[62][63]
440 BC-439 BC Morychides Pericles is a strategos
439 BC-438 BC Glaucinus Pericles is a strategos
438 BC-437 BC Theodorus Pericles is a strategos
437 BC-436 BC Euthymenes Pericles is a strategos. Construction of the Propylaea begins
436 BC-435 BC Lysimachus Pericles is a strategos
435 BC-434 BC Antiochides Pericles is a strategos
434 BC-433 BC Crates Pericles is a strategos
433 BC-432 BC Apseudes Pericles, Lacedaemonius, Diotimus, and Proteas are strategoi
432 BC-431 BC Pythodorus (Second) Peloponnesian War begins; Pericles and Callias are strategoi
431 BC-430 BC Euthydemus Pericles is a strategos. Xenophon of Athens born (c. 430).
430 BC-429 BC Apollodorus Pericles dies; Xenophon, Hestiodorus, Calliades, Melesandrus, and Phanomachus are strategoi.
429 BC-428 BC Epameinon Phormio is a strategos. Plato[64] born.[65][66]
428 BC-427 BC Diotimus Demosthenes, Asopius, Paches, Cleidippes, and Lysicles are strategoi
427 BC-426 BC Eucles Nicias, Charoiades and Procles are strategoi
426 BC-425 BC Euthynus Laches and Hippocrates are strategoi
425 BC-424 BC Stratocles Nicias, Eurymedon, Pythodorus, and Sophocles are strategoi
424 BC-423 BC Isarchus Demosthenes, Cleon, Thucydides and Hippocrates are strategoi
423 BC-422 BC Aminias Cleon is a strategos
422 BC-421 BC Alcaeus Cleon is a strategos
421 BC-420 BC Aristion Construction of the Erechtheion begins.
420 BC-419 BC Astyphilus Alcibiades is strategos
419 BC-418 BC Archias
418 BC-417 BC Antiphon Laches and Nicostratus[67] are strategoi[68][69]
417 BC-416 BC Euphemus Beginning of the Syracusan Expedition
416 BC-415 BC Arimnestus Nicias, Alcibiades, and Lamachus are strategoi
415 BC-414 BC Charias Alcibiades is a strategos
414 BC-413 BC Tisandrus Lamachus is a strategos
413 BC-412 BC Cleocritus Eurymedon, Demosthenes, and Nicias are strategoi; the latter two are executed in Sicily after the Syracusan Expedition fails
412 BC-411 BC Callias Scambonides
411 BC-410 BC Mnasilochus (died); Theopompus Simichus and Aristarchus are strategoi
410 BC-409 BC Glaucippus
409 BC-408 BC Diocles Anytus is a strategos
408 BC-407 BC Euctemon
407 BC-406 BC Antigenes Alcibiades, Adeimantus, and Aristocrates are strategoi
406 BC-405 BC Callias Angelides Archestratus, Thrasylus, Pericles, Lysias, Diomedon, Aristocrates, Erasinides, Protomachus, and Aristogenes are strategoi
405 BC-404 BC Alexias Adeimantus, Eucrates, Philocles, Menandrus, Tydeus, and Cephisodotus are strategoi
404 BC-403 BC Pythodorus Sparta sets up the oligarchy of the Thirty Tyrants; Pythodorus not recognized as Eponymous Archon
403 BC-402 BC Eucleides[70][71] Thirty Tyrants expelled, democracy reestablished. Old Attic alphabet was officially abolished in favor of the Ionic alphabet of twenty-four letters.
402 BC-401 BC Micon
401 BC-400 BC Xenaenetus
400 BC-399 BC Laches
399 BC-398 BC Aristocrates Trial and death of Socrates
398 BC-397 BC Euthycles
397 BC-396 BC Souniades
396 BC-395 BC Phormion
395 BC-394 BC Diophandus[72][73][74] Athens joins the Corinthian War against Sparta
394 BC-393 BC Ebulides
393 BC-392 BC Demostratus Adeimantus is a strategos
392 BC-391 BC Philocles
391 BC-390 BC Nicoteles
390 BC-389 BC Demostratus Thrasybulus and Ergocles are strategoi
389 BC-388 BC Antipatrus Agyrrhius and Pamphilus are strategoi
388 BC-387 BC Pyrgion Thrasybulus and Dionysius are strategoi
387 BC-386 BC Theodotus Sacred Band of Thebes formed.
386 BC-385 BC Mystichides The Corinthian War ends with the Peace of Antalcidas.
385 BC-384 BC Dexitheus
384 BC-383 BC Dietrephes
383 BC-382 BC Phanostratus
382 BC-381 BC Evandrus
381 BC-380 BC Demophilus
380 BC-379 BC Pytheas
379 BC-378 BC Nicon Renewed war with Sparta
378 BC-377 BC Nausinicus Second Athenian Empire begins.
377 BC-376 BC Calleas
376 BC-375 BC Charisandrus Cedon is a strategos. Athenian fleet defeats Spartans at Battle of Naxos.
375 BC-374 BC Hippodamas
374 BC-373 BC Socratides
373 BC-372 BC Asteius Iphicrates, Callistratus, Chabrias, and Timotheus are strategoi
372 BC-371 BC Alcisthenes
371 BC-370 BC Phrasicleides Peace with Sparta. The Spartans are defeated by the Thebans at the Battle of Leuctra
370 BC-369 BC Dyscinitus
369 BC-368 BC Lysistratus
368 BC-367 BC Nausigenes
367 BC-366 BC Polyzelus
366 BC-365 BC Ciphisodorus Chabrias is a strategos
365 BC-364 BC Chion Iphicrates is a strategos
364 BC-363 BC Timocrates
363 BC-362 BC Charicleides Ergophilus and Callisthenes are strategoi
362 BC-361 BC Molon Leosthenes and Autocles are strategoi; Athens and Sparta are defeated by the Thebans at Mantinea.
361 BC-360 BC Nicophemus Timomachus is a strategos
360 BC-359 BC Callimides Menon, Timotheus, and Cephisodotus are strategoi
359 BC-358 BC Eucharistus
358 BC-357 BC Ciphisodotus
357 BC-356 BC Agathocles Chabrias is a strategos. War of the Allies begins.
356 BC-355 BC Elpines Iphicrates, Timotheus, and Menestheus are strategoi. Third Sacred War begins. Hieronymus of Cardia born (356 BC).
355 BC-354 BC Callistratus
354 BC-353 BC Diotemus
353 BC-352 BC Thudemus
352 BC-351 BC Aristodemus
351 BC-350 BC Theellus Theogenes is Basileus (possibly)
350 BC-349 BC Apollodorus[75][76]
349 BC-348 BC Callimachus Hegesileus is a strategos
348 BC-347 BC Theophilus
347 BC-346 BC Themistocles Proxenus is a strategos
346 BC-345 BC Archias
345 BC-344 BC Ebulus Timaeus born (c. 345 BC).
344 BC-343 BC Lyciscus Phocion is a strategos.
343 BC-342 BC Pythodotus
342 BC-341 BC Sosigenes
341 BC-340 BC Nicomachus
340 BC-339 BC Theophrastus Phocion is a strategos
339 BC-338 BC Lysimachides Phocion is a strategos, and is defeated by Philip II of Macedon
338 BC-337 BC Xaerondas Lysicles is a strategos
337 BC-336 BC Phrynichus
336 BC-335 BC Pythodilus
335 BC-334 BC Evaenetus
334 BC-333 BC Ctisicles
333 BC-332 BC Nicocrates
332 BC-331 BC Nicites
331 BC-330 BC Aristophanes
330 BC-329 BC Aristophon
329 BC-328 BC Ciphisophon
328 BC-327 BC Euthicritus
327 BC-326 BC Hegemon
326 BC-325 BC Chremes
325 BC-324 BC Andicles Philocles is a strategos
324 BC-323 BC Hegesias
323 BC-322 BC Ciphisodorus Phocion and Leosthenes are strategoi; The Lamian War with Macedon erupts upon Alexander the Great's death. Partition of Babylon and the formation of the Ptolemaic Kingdom.
322 BC-321 BC Philocles Wars of the Diadochi begins.
321 BC-320 BC Archippus
320 BC-319 BC Neaechmus
319 BC-318 BC Apollodorus
318 BC-317 BC Archippus
317 BC-316 BC Demogenes Demetrius Phalereus installed by the Macedonian regent Cassander as Governor.
316 BC-315 BC Democleides
315 BC-314 BC Praxibulus
314 BC-313 BC Nicodorus
313 BC-312 BC Theophrastus
312 BC-311 BC Polemon Seleucid Empire begins.
311 BC-310 BC Simonides
310 BC-309 BC Hieromnemon
309 BC-308 BC Demetrius
308 BC-307 BC Charinus
307 BC-306 BC Anaxicrates Lysias is a thesmothete;[77] Demetrius Phalereus is expelled when Demetrius I Poliorcetes captures the city from Cassander.
306 BC-305 BC Coroebus Pamphilus is a thesmothete. Antigonid dynasty begins.
305 BC-304 BC Euxenippus Autolycus is a thesmothete
304 BC-303 BC Pherecles Epicharinus is a thesmothete
303 BC-302 BC Leostratus Diophantus is a thesmothete

Hellenistic period

Main article: Hellenistic period
Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
302 BC-301 BC Nicocles Nicon is a thesmothete. Antipatrid dynasty begins.
301 BC-300 BC Clearchus Mnesarchus is a thesmothete
300 BC-299 BC Hegemachus
299 BC-298 BC Euctemon Theophilus is a thesmothete
298 BC-297 BC Mnesidemus
297 BC-296 BC Antiphates
296 BC-295 BC Nicias Anticrates is a thesmothete
295 BC-294 BC Nicostratus Dorotheus is a thesmothete
294 BC-293 BC Olympiodorus Thrasycles is a thesmothete
293 BC-292 BC Olympiodorus Epicurus is a thesmothete
292 BC-291 BC Philippus
291 BC-290 BC Cimon
290 BC-289 BC Aristonymus
289 BC-288 BC Charinus (?)
288 BC-287 BC Xenophon (?)
287 BC-286 BC Diocles Xenophon is a thesmothete
286 BC-285 BC Diotimus Lysistratus is a thesmothete
285 BC-284 BC Isaeus
284 BC-283 BC Euthius Nausimenes is a thesmothete
283 BC-282 BC Nicias Theophilus is a thesmothete
282 BC-281 BC Ourius Euxenus is a thesmothete. Attalid dynasty begins.
281 BC-280 BC Gorgias
280 BC-279 BC Sosistratus (?)
279 BC-278 BC Anaxicrates Gallic invasion of the Balkans.
278 BC-277 BC Democles
277 BC-276 BC Euboulus (?)
276 BC-275 BC Olbius Cydias is a thesmothete
275 BC-274 BC Philippides (?)
274 BC-273 BC Glaucippus Euthonius is a thesmothete
273 BC-272 BC Unknown
272 BC-271 BC Telocles (?)
271 BC-270 BC Pytharatus
270 BC-269 BC Peithidemus Cleigenes is a thesmothete
269 BC-268 BC Diogeiton Theodotus is a thesmothete
268 BC-267 BC Menecles Theodorus is a thesmothete
267 BC-266 BC Nicias Isocrates is a thesmothete; The Chremonidean War against Macedon begins
266 BC-265 BC Hagnias (?) Potamon is a thesmothete
265 BC-264 BC Philocrates Hegesippus is a thesmothete
264 BC-263 BC Diognetus
263 BC-262 BC Antipatrus
262 BC-261 BC Arrheneides
261 BC-260 BC Cleomachus Aphthonetus is a thesmothete; Athens is captured by Antigonus II of Macedon, ending the Chremonidean War
260 BC-259 BC Polystratus (?)
259 BC-258 BC Unknown
258 BC-257 BC Antiphon (?)
257 BC-256 BC Thymochares (?) Sostratus is a thesmothete
256 BC-255 BC Alcibiades (?)
255 BC-254 BC Euboulus
254 BC-253 BC Philostratus (?)
253 BC-252 BC Lysitheides (?)
252 BC-251 BC Lyceas (?)
251 BC-250 BC Callimedes Callias is a thesmothete
250 BC-249 BC Antimachus Chaerigenes
249 BC-248 BC Thersilochus Diodotus is a thesmothete
248 BC-247 BC Polyeuctus Chaerephon is a thesmothete
247 BC-246 BC Hieron Phaenylus is a thesmothete
246 BC-245 BC Diomedon Phoryscides is a thesmothete
245 BC-244 BC Theophemus Procles is a thesmothete
244 BC-243 BC Philoneus
243 BC-242 BC Cydenor
242 BC-241 BC Eurycleides
241 BC-240 BC Lysiades Aristomachus is a thesmothete
240 BC-239 BC Athenodorus Arcetus is a thesmothete
239 BC-238 BC Lysias
238 BC-237 BC Pheidostratus
237 BC-236 BC Cimon
236 BC-235 BC Ecphantus
235 BC-234 BC Lysanias Eumelus is a thesmothete
234 BC-233 BC Phanostratus (?)
233 BC-232 BC Unknown
232 BC-231 BC Jason
231 BC-230 BC Unknown
230 BC-229 BC Phanomachus (?)
229 BC-228 BC Heliodorus Charias is a thesmothete
228 BC-227 BC Leochares Theocrisius is a thesmothete
227 BC-226 BC Theophilus Philippus is a thesmothete
226 BC-225 BC Ergochares Zoilus is a thesmothete
225 BC-224 BC Nicetes
224 BC-223 BC Antiphilus
223 BC-222 BC Unknown
222 BC-221 BC Archelaus Moschus is a thesmothete
221 BC-220 BC Thrasyphon
220 BC-219 BC Menecrates
219 BC-218 BC Chaerephon
218 BC-217 BC Callimachus (?) Aristoteles is a thesmothete
217 BC-216 BC Unknown
216 BC-215 BC Hagnias Potamon
215 BC-214 BC Diocles Aristophanes is a thesmothete. First Macedonian War begins. (214 BC)
214 BC-213 BC Euphiletus
213 BC-212 BC Heracleitus
212 BC-211 BC Philinus (?)
211 BC-210 BC Aeschron
210 BC-209 BC Unknown
209 BC-208 BC Callaeschrus Archicles is a thesmothete
208 BC-207 BC Ancylus (?)
207 BC-206 BC Pantiades (?)
206 BC-205 BC Callistratus (?) Hagnonides is a thesmothete
205 BC-204 BC Euandrus (?)
204 BC-203 BC Apollodorus
203 BC-202 BC Proxenides Euboulus is a thesmothete
202 BC-201 BC Euthycritus (?)
201 BC-200 BC Nicophon (?) Second Macedonian War begins(200 BC).
200 BC-199 BC Dionysius (?) Polybius born (c. 200 BC).
199 BC-198 BC Philon (?)
198 BC-197 BC Diodotus
197 BC-196 BC Sositeles
196 BC-195 BC Charicles Aeschrion is a thesmothete
195 BC-193 BC Unknown
193 BC-192 BC Phanarchides Seleucid War begins (192 BC).
192 BC-191 BC Diodotus Procles is a thesmothete
191 BC-190 BC Unknown Cephalus is a thesmothete
190 BC-189 BC Hippias (?) Theodosius is possibly a thesmothete
189 BC-188 BC Isocrates (?)
188 BC-187 BC Symmachus Archicles is a thesmothete
187 BC-186 BC Theoxenus Bioteles is possibly a thesmothete
186 BC-185 BC Zopyrus Megaristus is a thesmothete
185 BC-184 BC Eupolemus Stratonicus is a thesmothete
184 BC-183 BC Sosigenes (?)
183 BC-182 BC Hermogenes
182 BC-181 BC Timesianax
181 BC-180 BC Telesarchides
180 BC-179 BC Dionysius (?) Jason is a thesmothete
179 BC-178 BC Menedemus
178 BC-177 BC Philon Philistion is a thesmothete
177 BC-176 BC Speusippus
176 BC-175 BC Hippacus
175 BC-174 BC Sonicus Pausanias is a thesmothete
174 BC-173 BC Unknown
173 BC-172 BC Alexandrus (?) Third Macedonian War begins (172 BC).
172 BC-171 BC Sosigenes
171 BC-170 BC Antigenes Sosandrus is a thesmothete
170 BC-169 BC Unknown
169 BC-168 BC Eunicus Hieronymus is a thesmothete
168 BC-167 BC Xenocles Sthenedemus is a thesmothete
167 BC-166 BC Nicosthenes (?)
166 BC-165 BC Achaeus Heracleon is a thesmothete
165 BC-164 BC Pelops Dionysicles is a thesmothete
164 BC-163 BC Charias (?)
163 BC-162 BC Erastus Demetrius is a thesmothete
162 BC-161 BC Poseidonius
161 BC-160 BC Aristolas
160 BC-159 BC Tychandrus Sosigenes is a thesmothete
159 BC-158 BC Diocles (?) Dionysodorus is a thesmothete
158 BC-157 BC Aristaechmus
157 BC-156 BC Anthesterius
156 BC-155 BC Callistratus
155 BC-154 BC Mnestheus Philiscus is a thesmothete
154 BC-153 BC Epaenetus (?)
153 BC-152 BC Aristophantus (?)
152 BC-151 BC Phaedrias (?)
151 BC-150 BC Andreas (?)
150 BC-149 BC Zeleucus (?) Fourth Macedonian War begins (150 BC).
149 BC-148 BC Micion (?)
148 BC-147 BC Lysiades (?)
147 BC-146 BC Archon Rome takes control of Greece

Roman period

Main article: Roman Greece

Year Eponymous Archon Other officials or notable events
146 BC-145 BC Epicrates
145 BC-144 BC Metrophanes Epigenes is a thesmothete
144 BC-143 BC Hermias (?)
143 BC-142 BC Theaetetus
142 BC-141 BC Aristophon
141 BC-140 BC Pleistaenus (?)
140 BC-139 BC Hagnotheus Menecrates is a thesmothete
139 BC-138 BC Apollodorus
138 BC-137 BC Timarchus
137 BC-136 BC Heracleitus Dionysius is a thesmothete
136 BC-135 BC Timarchides
135 BC-134 BC Dionysius Theolytus is a thesmothete
134 BC-133 BC Nicomachus
133 BC-132 BC Xenon
132 BC-131 BC Ergocles
131 BC-130 BC Epicles Gorgilus is a thesmothete
130 BC-129 BC Demostratus
129 BC-128 BC Lyciscus
128 BC-127 BC Dionysius
127 BC-126 BC Theodorides Sosicrates is a thesmothete
126 BC-125 BC Diotimus
125 BC-124 BC Jason Athenodorus is a thesmothete
124 BC-123 BC Nicias (died); Isigenes
123 BC-122 BC Demetrius
122 BC-121 BC Nicodemus Epigenes is a thesmothete
121 BC-120 BC Phocion (?) Euandros is possibly a thesmothete
120 BC-119 BC Eumachus
119 BC-118 BC Hipparchus
118 BC-117 BC Lenaeus Isidorus is a thesmothete
117 BC-116 BC Menoites
116 BC-115 BC Sarapion Sophocles is a thesmothete
115 BC-114 BC Nausias
114 BC-113 BC Pleistaenus
113 BC-112 BC Paramonus
112 BC-111 BC Dionysius Lamius is a thesmothete
111 BC-110 BC Sosicrates
110 BC-109 BC Polycleitus
109 BC-108 BC Jason Epiphanes is a thesmothete
108 BC-107 BC Demochares
107 BC-106 BC Aristarchus Telestes is a thesmothete
106 BC-105 BC Agathocles Eucles is a thesmothete
105 BC-104 BC Heracleides
104 BC-103 BC Diocles (?)
103 BC-102 BC Theocles
102 BC-101 BC Echecrates
101 BC-100 BC Medeius Philion is a thesmothete
100 BC-99 BC Theodosius
99 BC-98 BC Procles
98 BC-97 BC Argeius
97 BC-96 BC Argeius
96 BC-95 BC Heracleitus
95 BC-94 BC Diocles (?)
94 BC-93 BC Isocrates (?)
93 BC-92 BC Callias
92 BC-91 BC Menedemos (?)
91 BC-90 BC Medeius
90 BC-89 BC Medeius
89 BC-88 BC Medeius
88 BC-87 BC anarchy
87 BC-86 BC Philanthes Rome annexes Athens
86 BC-85 BC Hierophantes
85 BC-84 BC Pythocritus
84 BC-83 BC Aeschraeus (?) Athens is captured by the Roman troops of Lucius Cornelius Sulla
83 BC-82 BC Seleucus (?)
82 BC-81 BC Herecleodorus (?)
81 BC-80 BC Apollodorus (?)
80 BC-78 BC Unknown
78 BC-77 BC Zenion (?)
77 BC-75 BC Unknown
75 BC-74 BC Aeschines
74 BC-73 BC Unknown
73 BC-72 BC Nicetes (?)
72 BC-71 BC Unknown
71 BC-70 BC Aristoxenus (?)
70 BC-69 BC Criton (?)
69 BC-67 BC Unknown
67 BC-66 BC Theoxenus (?)
66 BC-65 BC Medeius (?)
65 BC-62 BC Unknown
62 BC-61 BC Aristeius
61 BC-60 BC Theophemus
60 BC-59 BC Herodes
59 BC-58 BC Leucius
58 BC-57 BC Calliphon
57 BC-56 BC Diocles
56 BC-55 BC Cointus
55 BC-54 BC Aristoxenus (or Aristodemus?)
54 BC-53 BC Zenon
53 BC-52 BC Diodorus
52 BC-51 BC Lysandrus
51 BC-50 BC Lysiades
50 BC-49 BC Demetrius
49 BC-48 BC Demochares
48 BC-47 BC Philocrates
47 BC-46 BC Diocles
46 BC-45 BC Apolexis
45 BC-44 BC Polycharmus
44 BC-43 BC or 43 BC-42 BC Diocles Azenieus
42 BC-41 BC Euthydomus
41 BC-40 BC Nicandrus
40 BC-39 BC Philostratus
39 BC-38 BC Diocles Meliteus
38 BC-37 BC Menandrus
37 BC-36 BC Theopeithes
36 BC-35 BC Asclepiodorus
35 BC-34 BC Unknown
34 BC-33 BC Pammenes (?)
33 BC-32 BC Cleidamus (?)
32 BC-31 BC Epicrates (?)
31 BC-30 BC Polycleitus Phlyeus (?)
30 BC-29 BC Architemus (?)
29 BC-26 BC Unknown
26 BC-25 BC Dioteimus Alaieus
25 BC-21 BC Unknown
21 BC-20 BC Demeas Azenieus
20 BC-19 BC Apolexis
19 BC-16 BC Unknown
16 BC-15 BC Pythagoras
15 BC-14 BC Antiochus
14 BC-13 BC Polyainus
13 BC-12 BC Zenon
12 BC-11 BC Leonides
11 BC-10 BC Theophilus
10 BC-9 BC Unknown
9 BC-8 BC Nicias Athmoneus (?)
8 BC-7 BC Demochares Azanieus (?)
7 BC-6 BC Unknown
6 BC-5 BC Xenon Phlyeus (?)
5 BC-4 BC Apolexis Philocratous ex Oiou (?)
4 BC-3 BC Aristodemus (?)
3 BC-2 BC Nicostratus (?)
2 BC-1 BC Demochares Azenius (?)
1 BC-1 Anaxagoras (?)
1-2 Areius Paianieus (?)
2-3 Cedeides (?)
3-4 Menneas (?)
4-5 Polyainus Marathonius (?)
5-6 Polycharmus Azenius (?)
6-7 Theophilus (?)
7-24 Unknown
24-25 Charmides
25-26 Callicratides
26-27 Pamphilus Julio-Claudian dynasty begins.
27-28 Themistocles Marathonius
28-29 Oinophilus
29-30 Boethus
30-36 Unknown
36-37 Rhoemetalcas the younger
37-38 Polycritus
38-39 Zenon
39-40 Secoundus
40-46 Unknown
45-46 Antipatrus the younger Phlyeus
46-49 Unknown
49-50 Deinophilus
50-54 Unknown
53-54 Dionysodorus
54-55 Unknown
55-56 Conon
56-61 Unknown
61-62 Thrasyllus
62-65 Unknown
64-65 Gaius Carreinas Secundus
65-66 Demostratus
66-91 Unknown Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69). Flavian dynasty begins (AD 69).
91-92 Titus Flavius Domitianus Also Roman Emperor
92-93 Trevilius Rufus
93-94 Unknown
94-95 Octavius Theion
95-96 Octavius Proclus Nerva–Antonine dynasty begins.
96-97 Aeolion
97-98 Unknown
98-99 Coponius Maximus Agnoösius
99-100 Lucius Vibullius Hipparchus
100-101 Flavius Stratolaus Phylesius
101-102 Claudius Demophilus
102-103 Flavius Sophocles Sounieus
103-104 Flavius Pintenus Gargottius
104-105 Flavius Conon Sounieus
105-107 Unknown
107-108 Flavius Alcibiades Paeanieus
108-109 Julius Antiochus Philopappus (died); Laelianus
109-110 Cassius Diogenes
110-111 Flavius Euphanes
111-112 Gaius Julius Cassius Steirieus
112-113 Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus Later Roman Emperor
113-114 Deëdius Secundus Sphettius
114-115 Unknown
115-116 Publius Fulvius Mitrodorus Sounieus
116-117 Flavius Macreanus Acharneus
117-118 Unknown
118-119 Maximus Agnoösius
119-126 Unknown
126-127 Claudius Herodes Marathonius
127-128 Gaius Memmius Peissandrus Colytteus
128-131 Unknown
131-132 Claudius Philogenus Visseieus
132-133 Claudius Domitianus Visseieus
133-134 Unknown
134-135 Antisthenes
135-138 Unknown
138-139 Praxagoras Thoricius
139-140 Flavius Alcibiades Paianieus
140-141 Claudius Attalus Sphettius
141-142 Publius Aelius Phileas Meliteus
142-143 Aelius Alexandrus Phalereus
143-144 Publius Aelius Vibullius Rufus
144-145 Syllas
145-146 Flavius Arrianus Paianieus
146-147 Titus Flavius Alcibiades Paeanieus
147-148 Soteles Philippus Estiaeothen
148-149 Lucius Nummius Ieroceryx Phalereus
149-150 Quintus Alleius Epictetus
150-151 Aelius Ardys
151-152 Aelius Callicrates
152-153 Lucius Nummius Menis Phalereus
153-154 Aelius Alexandrus III
154-155 Praxagoras Meliteus
155-156 Popillius Theotimus Sounieus
156-157 Aelius Gelus II
157-158 Lycomedes
158-159 Titus Aurelius Philemon Philades
159-160 Tiberius Claudius Lysiades Meliteus
160-161 Publius Aelius Themison Pammenes Azenieus
161-162 Lucius Memmius Thoricius
162-163 Pompeius Alexandrus Acharneus
163-164 Philisteides Peiraieus
164-165 Pompeius Daidouchus
165-166 Sextus Phalereus
166-167 Marcus Valerius Mamertinus Marathonius
167-168 anarchy
168-169 Tineius Ponticus Besaieus
169-170 anarchy
170-171 Tiberius Memmius Phlaccus Marathonius
171-172 anarchy
172-173 Biesius Peison Meliteus
173-174 Sallustianus Aeolion Phlyeus
174-175 Aurelius Dionysius
175-176 Claudius Heracleides Meliteus
176-177 Aristocleides Peiraieus
177-178 Scribonius Capiton (?)
178-179 Flavius Stratolaus Phylasius
179-180 Athenodorus Agrippas Iteaius
180-181 Claudius Demostratus Meliteus
181-182 Daedouchus
182-183 Marcus Munatius Maximianus Ouopiscus
183-184 Domitius Aristaius Paionides
184-185 Titus Flavius Sosigenes Palleneus
185-186 Philoteimus Arcesidemou Eleousius
186-187 Gaius Fabius Thisbianus Marathonius
187-188 Tiberius Claudius Bradouas Atticus Marathonius
188-189 Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Also Roman Emperor
189-190 Menogenes
190-191 Gaius Peinarius Proclus Agnousius
191-192 Unknown
192-193 Gaius Helvidius Secundus Palleneus Severan dynasty begins.
193-199 Unknown
199-200 Gaius Quintus Imerus Marathonius
200-203 Unknown
203-204 Gaius Cassianus Steirieus
204-209 Unknown
209-210 Flavius Diogenes Marathonius
210-212 Unknown
212-213 Aurelius Dionysius Acharneus
213-220 Unknown
220-221 Titus Flavius (?) Philinus
221-222 Aurelius Melpomenus Antinoeus
222-230 Unknown
230-231 Cassianus Hieroceryx Steirieus
231-233 Unknown
233-234 Vib. Lysandrus
234-235 Epictetus Acharneus
235-240 Unknown Crisis of the Third Century (AD 235).
240-241 Cassianus Philippus Steirieus
241-254 Unknown Diocletian born (AD 244)
254-255 Lucius Flavius Philustratus Steirieus
255-262 Unknown
262-263 Publius Herennius Dexippus (?) Also archon Basileus?
263-264 Unknown
264-265 Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Also Roman Emperor
265-274 Unknown
274-275 Titus Flavius Mondon Phlyeus

Titus Flavius Mondon Phlyeus was the last known Archon. After him, the office was presumably abolished.

See also

Further reading

  • Ron Owens, Justice and the Political Reforms of Solon, Eponymous Archon at Athens, 594-593 BC. Australian National University, 2000.
  • Companion to Greek studies. 1906.
  • Greek antiquities, William Smith (sir). A dictionary of Greek and Roman antiquities. 1848.
  • Sir William Smith, A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology, and Geography: Partly Based Upon the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Harper & Brothers, 1851.
  • Sir William Smith. Abaeus-Dysponteus. J. Murray, 1890.
  • Sir William Smith. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: Earinus-Nyx. J. Murray, 1876.
  • William Smith (Ed.) A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: Oarses-Zygia. J. Murray, 1880.
  • Henry-Fines Clinton. Fasti Hellenici, the Civil and Literary Chronology of Greece, from the Earliest Accounts to the Death of Augustus. University Press, 1841.
  • E. Pococke, J. B. Ottley, John T. Rutt, Thomas Noon Talfourd. The History of Greece. "Greek Chronology". Griffin, 1852.


General information
  • Evelyn Abbott. A Skeleton Outline of Greek History: Chronologically Arranged. Longmans, Green, 1910.
  • George Crabb. Universal Historical Dictionary. Baldwin and Cradock, 1833. Pg 90+
  • William Hales, Chronology and geography. C.J.G. & F. Rivington, 1830. Pg 123+
  • Transactions of the Chronological Institute of London, Volumes 1-2. 1853. Pg 24+
  • George Grot. History of Greece, Volume 11. Pg 487-488
  • Plutarch. Six of Plutarch's Greek Lives. C. Scribner's sons, 1901.
  • Adapted from
  • Adkins, Lesley and Roy A. Handbook to Life in Ancient Greece New York: Oxford University Press 1997 ISBN 0-19-512491-X
  • Aristotle's Athenian Constitution
  • William Bell Dinsmoor, The Archons of Athens in the Hellenistic Age. Cambridge, 1931 (1966 reprint)
  • William Bell Dinsmoor, The Athenian Archon List in the Light of Recent Discoveries. Columbia University Press, 1939 (1974 reprint, ISBN 0-8371-4735-2)
  • Fox, Robin Lane The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer to Hadrian New York: Basic Books 2006 ISBN 0-465-02496-3
  • Debra Hamel, Athenian Generals: Military Authority in the Classical Period. Koninklijke Brill NV, 1998.
  • Lacey, W. K. The Family in Classical Greece Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press 1968
de:Archon eponymos


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