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Åke Ohlmarks

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Åke Ohlmarks

Åke Joel Ohlmarks (June 3, 1911 in Kristianstad, Sweden – 1984 in Crist di Niardo, Brescia, Italy) was a Swedish author, translator and scholar of religion.

He worked as a Lecturer at the University of Greifswald from 1941 to 1945. Together with the Deutsche Christen member Wilhelm Koepp he founded the institute for religious studies there in 1944.

His most notable contribution to the field is his 1939 study of Shamanism.

As a translator, he is notable for his Swedish version of the Icelandic Edda, of Shakespeare's works and of J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, the Qur'an and works by Dante, Nostradamus and others.

Translation of Tolkien's works

Ohlmarks translation of Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings was strongly disliked by the author, prompting him to compile his Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings. Ohlmarks not just invented many expression of his own, but also took great liberties with the contents of Tolkien's work, both by shortening many parts of it and by inserting his own interpretations.

Tolkien was also dissatisfied by the title Sagan om ringen, "The Saga of the Ring".

As a result of the severe criticism directed against his translation of The Lord of the Rings, both by Tolkien himself and by Swedish Tolkien fandom, Ohlmarks in the late 1970s began to display hostility towards the "Tolkien phenomenon", and in 1982 published a book titled "Tolkien and Black Magic,"[1] expounding a conspiracy theory connecting Tolkien and Tolkien fandom with Nazi occultism.

Despite the criticism and controversy, Ohlmarks's translations remained the only Swedish-language translations of The Lord of the Rings until 2004.

Publications

Academic

  • 1936, Isländska hov och gudahus, in: Bidrag till nordisk filologi tillägnade Emil Olson den 9 juni 1936, S.339-355.
  • 1936, Totenerweckung in Eddaliedern, in: Arkiv för nordisk filologi 52, S 264-297.
  • 1937, Heimdalls Horn und Odins Auge. Studien zur nordischen und vergleichenden Religionsgeschichte, Erstes Buch (I-II) Heimdallr und das Horn, Lund.
  • 1939, Studien zum Problem des Schamanismus, Lund.
  • 1939, Anmärkningar och genmäle angående Heimdall, in: Arkiv för nordisk filologi 54, S. 354-363.
  • 1939, Arktischer Schamanismus und altnordischer Seiðr, in: Archiv für Religionswissenschaft 36, S. 171-180.
  • 1941, Stellt die mythische Bifrost den Regenbogen oder die Milchstrasse dar? Eine textkritisch-religionshistorische Untersuchung zur mythographischen Arbeitsmethode Snorri Sturlusons, (Meddelande från Lunds astronomiska observatorium, Ser. II Nr. 110), Lund.
  • 1941, Das Grabschiff. Studien zur vorgeschichtlichen nordischen Religionsgeschichte, i: Zeitschrift für systematische Theologie 18, S. 150-158.
  • 1943, Studien zur altgermanischen Religionsgeschichte. 4 Aufsätze, Leipzig.
  • 1943, Die klassischen Isländersagas und ihr Ehrbegriff, in: Grundmann, Walter (Hg.), Die völkische Gestalt des Glaubens, Leipzig, S. 157-220.
  • with Lars Åkerberg (1944), Thomas Thorild als Vorläufer der neuzeitlichen Religionswissenschaft, Greifswald.
  • 1944, Alt-Uppsala und Urnes. Untersuchung zur Entstehung der Dreischiffstabkirche und des ältesten germanisch-heidnischen Kulthauses, (Meddelande från Lunds astronomiska observatorium, Ser. II Nr. 115), Lund.
  • 1944, Alt-Uppsala und Arkona, in: Vetenskapssocieteten i Lund, Årsbok 1943, Lund, S. 79-120.
  • 1945, „Toalettredskapen“ och solreligionen under yngre bronsåldern, in: Fornvännen 40, S. 337-358.
  • 1946, Gravskeppet. Studier i förhistorisk nordisk religionshistoria, Stockholm.
  • 1963, Hällristningarnas gudar. En sammanställning och ett förklarningsförsök, Stockholm.
  • 1979, Vårt nordiska arv. från 10.000 f.Kr. till medeltidens början, Stockholm.

Autobiographical

  • I paradiset. Levnadsminnen I, Uddevalla (1965).
  • Doktor i Lund. En bok om akademiska intriger, Stockholm (1980).
  • Efter mig Syndafloden. Greifswald-Berlin-Hamburg 1941-1945, Köping (1980).

Literature

  • Fritz Heinrich, (1997), Das religionswissenschaftliche Institut der Ernst Moritz Arndt-Universität Greifswald 1944-1945, in: Zeitschrift für Religionswissenschaft 5, S. 203-230.
  • Fritz Heinrich, (2002), Die deutsche Religionswissenschaft und der Nationalsozialismus. Eine ideologiekritische und wissenschaftsgeschichtliche Untersuchung, Petersberg.
  • Gunnar Jarring, (1992–1994), Ohlmarks, Åke Joel, in: Svenskt Biografiskt Lexikon Bd. 28, Stockholm, S. 111-117.
  • Anders Marell, (1998), Åke Ohlmarks – schwedischer Lektor, Nazimitläufer und/oder Geheimagent?, in: Germanisten 1-3 Jg. 3, S. 93-100.
  1. ^ Tolkien och den svarta magin (1982), ISBN 978-91-7574-053-9.

See also

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