World government

World government is the notion of a single common political authority for all of humanity.

Currently there is no worldwide executive, legislature, judiciary, military, or constitution with jurisdiction over the entire planet. The United Nations is limited to a mostly advisory role, and its stated purpose is to foster cooperation between existing national governments rather than exert authority over them.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Francisco de Vitoria 1.1
    • Hugo Grotius 1.2
    • Immanuel Kant 1.3
    • Joseph Smith 1.4
    • Karl Krause 1.5
    • Alfred Tennyson 1.6
    • Bahá'u'lláh 1.7
    • Ulysses S. Grant 1.8
    • Harry Truman 1.9
    • International Peace Congress 1.10
    • International organizations 1.11
    • League of Nations 1.12
    • Nazi Germany 1.13
    • Atlantic Charter 1.14
    • United Nations 1.15
    • World Federalist Movement 1.16
    • Garry Davis 1.17
      • World Passport 1.17.1
    • Legal Realism (1954) 1.18
    • End of the Cold War (1991) 1.19
  • Current global governance system 2
  • Existing regional unions of nations 3
    • NATO 3.1
    • European Union 3.2
    • CARICOM 3.3
    • African Union 3.4
    • ASEAN 3.5
    • Shanghai Cooperation Organisation 3.6
    • Commonwealth of Independent States 3.7
    • Arab League 3.8
    • Union of South American Nations 3.9
    • South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation 3.10
    • Organisation of Islamic Cooperation 3.11
    • Turkic Council 3.12
  • Proposed United Nations Parliamentary Assembly 4
  • See also 5
  • Resources 6
    • Published works 6.1
    • Organizations 6.2
    • Initiatives 6.3
  • Notes 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

History

Francisco de Vitoria

Early father of international law, Spanish philosopher Francisco de Vitoria (c. 1483 – 1546) is considered the "founder of global political philosophy." De Vitoria conceived of the res publica totius orbis, or the "republic of the whole world." This came at a time when the University of Salamanca was engaged in unprecedented thought concerning human rights, international law, an early economics based on the experiences of the Spanish Empire.

Hugo Grotius

Title page of the 1631 second edition of De jure belli ac pacis.

De jure belli ac pacis (On the Law of War and Peace) is a 1625 book in Latin, written by Hugo Grotius (1583 – 1645) and published in Paris, on the legal status of war. It is now regarded as a foundational work in international law.[1] Grotius was a philosopher, theologian, playwright, and poet. He is known for coming up with the idea of having an international law, and is still acknowledged today by the American society of International Law.

Immanuel Kant

Painted portrait of Immanuel Kant.

Immanuel Kant wrote the essay "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch (Zum ewigen Frieden. Ein philosophischer Entwurf.) (1795)". In his essay, Kant describes three basic requirements for organizing human affairs to permanently abolish the threat of present and future war, and, thereby, help establish a new era of lasting peace throughout the world. Specifically, Kant described his proposed peace program as containing two steps.

The "Preliminary Articles" described the steps that should be taken immediately, or with all deliberate speed:

  1. "No Secret Treaty of Peace Shall Be Held Valid in Which There Is Tacitly Reserved Matter for a Future War"
  2. "No Independent States, Large or Small, Shall Come under the Dominion of Another State by Inheritance, Exchange, Purchase, or Donation"
  3. "Standing Armies Shall in Time Be Totally Abolished"
  4. "National Debts Shall Not Be Contracted with a View to the External Friction of States"
  5. "No State Shall by Force Interfere with the Constitution or Government of Another State,
  6. "No State Shall, during War, Permit Such Acts of Hostility Which Would Make Mutual Confidence in the Subsequent Peace Impossible: Such Are the Employment of Assassins (percussores), Poisoners (venefici), Breach of Capitulation, and Incitement to Treason (perduellio) in the Opposing State"

Three Definitive Articles would provide not merely a cessation of hostilities, but a foundation on which to build a peace.

  1. "The Civil Constitution of Every State Should Be Republican"
  2. "The Law of Nations Shall be Founded on a Federation of Free States"
  3. "The Law of World Citizenship Shall Be Limited to Conditions of Universal Hospitality"

Joseph Smith

In early 19th century Millennium.[2][3][4]

Karl Krause

In 1811, German philosopher Karl Krause, suggested, in an essay titled "The Archetype of Humanity", the formation of five regional federations: Europe, Asia, Africa, America and Australia, aggregated under a world republic.

Alfred Tennyson

In 1842, the English poet Lord Alfred Tennyson, published the oft-quoted lines "Locksley Hall": For I dipt into the future, far as human eye could see / Saw a Vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be /... / Till the war-drum throbb'd no longer / and the battle-flags were furled / In the Parliament of man, the Federation of the world. / There the common sense of most shall hold / a fretful realm in awe / And the kindly earth shall slumber / lapt in universal law.

Bahá'u'lláh

In the second half of the 19th century, Bahá'u'lláh founded the Bahá'í Faith, a religion which identified the establishment of world unity and a global federation of nations as a key principle.[5] He envisioned a set of new social structures based on participation and consultation among the world's peoples, including a world legislature, an international court, and an international executive empowered to carry out the decisions of these legislative and judicial bodies. Connected principles of the Bahá'í religion include universal systems of weights and measures, currency unification, and the adoption of a global auxiliary language.[6]

According to [7]

In his many scriptures and messages addressed to the most prominent state leaders of his time, Bahá'u'lláh called for world reconciliation, reunification, collective security and the peaceful settlement of disputes. Many of the most fundamental Bahá'í writings address the central issue of world unity, such as the following: "The earth is but one country and mankind its citizens".[8] The World Christian Encyclopedia estimated 7.1 million Bahá'ís in the world in 2000, representing 218 countries[9]

Ulysses S. Grant

Ulysses S. Grant commented, "I believe at some future day, the nations of the earth will agree on some sort of congress which will take cognizance of international questions of difficulty and whose decisions will be as binding as the decisions of the Supreme Court are upon us".[10]

Harry Truman

U.S. President Harry S. Truman commented: "We must make the United Nations continue to work, and to be a going concern, to see that difficulties between nations may be settled just as we settle difficulties between States here in the United States. When Kansas and Colorado fall out over the waters in the Arkansas River, they don't go to war over it; they go to the Supreme Court of the United States, and the matter is settled in a just and honorable way. There is not a difficulty in the whole world that cannot be settled in exactly the same way in a world court". -- President Truman's remarks in Omaha, Nebraska on June 5, 1948, at the dedication of the War Memorial.[11]

International Peace Congress

Starting in 1843, International Peace Congresses were held in Europe every two years, but lost their momentum after 1853 due to the renewed outbreak of wars in Europe (Crimea) and North America (American Civil War).

International organizations

International organizations started forming in the late 19th century – the

League of Nations

The Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920. At its largest size from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members. The League's goals included upholding the Rights of Man, such as the rights of non-whites, women, and soldiers; disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy, and improving global quality of life. The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift in thought from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and so depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions and economic sanctions and provide an army, when needed. However, these powers proved reluctant to do so. Lacking many of the key elements necessary to maintain world peace, the League failed to prevent World War II. Hitler withdrew Germany from the League of Nations once he planned to take over Europe. The rest of the Axis powers soon followed him. Having failed its primary goal, the League of Nations fell apart. The League of Nations consisted of the Assembly, the Council, and the Permanent Secretariat. Below these were many agencies. The Assembly was where delegates from all member states conferred. Each country was allowed three representatives and one vote.

Nazi Germany

The ruling

  • Quotations related to World government at Wikiquote
  • World government entry by Catherine Lu in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, December 4, 2006
  • Immanuel Kant: "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch" (English translation of "Zum ewigen Frieden")

External links

  • Ankerl, Guy (2000). Global communication without universal civilization. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press.  

References

  1. ^ USYD.edu.au
  2. ^ Andrus, Hyrum Leslie (1958). Joseph Smith and World Government. Salt Lake City, Utah:  
  3. ^ Riggs, Robert E. (Winter 1959), "Book Reviews",  
  4. ^ Bradley, Don (April 2006), "The Grand Fundamental Principles of Mormonism: Joseph Smith's Unfinished Reformation",  
  5. ^ Bahá'í International Community (1995). Turning Point for All Nations. 
  6. ^ McMullen, Mike (2009). "The Bahá'í Faith". In  
  7. ^ http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/WOB/wob-56.html
  8. ^  
  9. ^ http://www.bible.ca/global-religion-statistics-world-christian-encyclopedia.htm
  10. ^  
  11. ^ Public Papers, Harry S. Truman Library
  12. ^ a b c Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1995) Germany, Hitler, and World War II: Essays in modern German and world history. Cambridge University Press, p. 36.
  13. ^ Weinberg 1995, p. 37.
  14. ^ Worldservice.org
  15. ^ Worldgovernment.org, Copies of visas
  16. ^ Romingerlegal.com, 99-1334 - U.S. v. THOMAS - 07/07/2000
  17. ^ http://www.worldservice.org/docpass.html
  18. ^ The Law of Primitive Man (1954:331-333)
  19. ^ UN.org, Chart
  20. ^ Bauböck, Rainer (2007). "Why European Citizenship? Normative Approaches to Supranational Union".  
  21. ^ "The SIPRI Military Expenditure Database". Milexdata.sipri.org. Retrieved 22 August 2010. 
  22. ^ Bangkok Declaration. Wikisource. Retrieved March 14, 2007
  23. ^ Overview, ASEAN Secretariat official website. Retrieved June 12, 2006
  24. ^ Regional organizations in UN peacekeeping activities PDF (354 KB)
  25. ^ "The Organization has the singular honor to galvanize the Ummah into a unified body and have actively represented the Muslims by espousing all causes close to the hearts of over 1.5 billion Muslims of the world."
  26. ^ a b http://www.oic-oci.org/page_detail.asp?p_id=52
  27. ^ http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/cairodeclaration.html
  28. ^ Watson, Graham (26 September 2007). The Case for Global Democracy: Cross Party Coalition of MEPs calls for a UN Parliamentary Assembly. Graham Watson MEP. Retrieved on 7 December 2007.
  29. ^ UNPAcampaign.org, Over 600 MPs support call for UN Parliamentary Assembly - 4 February 2009, CEUNPA
  30. ^ UNPA Support Page, July 30, 2013
  31. ^ http://rael.org/download.php?view.1
  32. ^ http://realrael.org/masonic_messiah.pdf

Notes

  • Vote World Parliament (VWP) is a Canadian NGO which has independently begun a global referendum posing the following question : Do you support the creation of a directly elected, representative and democratic world parliament that is authorized to legislate on global issues?

Initiatives

  • The World Federalist Movement (WFM) is a global citizens movement with 23 member and 16 associated organizations around the globe working towards the establishment of a federated world government. The U.S. member organization is Citizens for Global Solutions, and the Canadian organization is World Federalist Movement - Canada
  • The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) is a well-funded research and education center in Canada dedicated to the subject. It is preparing to launch IGLOO: "a global online research community focused solely on strengthening governance around the world."
  • One World Trust (OWT) is a charity based in the United Kingdom and member of the World Federalist Movement. Its current work aims to promote reforms of existing global organizations leading to greater accountability.
  • Civitatis International is a non-governmental organization based in the United Kingdom that produces legal research promoting increased systems of global governance to policymakers.
  • The Committee for a Democratic UN is a network of parliamentarians and non-governmental organizations from Germany, Switzerland and Austria which is based on world federalist philosophy.
  • Democratic World Federalists is a San-Francisco-based civil society organization with supporters worldwide, advocates a democratic federal system of world government.
  • The World Government of World Citizens, founded September 4, 1953 in Ellsworth, ME, by former Broadway actor and WWII bomber pilot Garry Davis following the registering of 750,000 individuals worldwide as World Citizens by the International Registry of World Citizens, headquartered in Paris, January 1, 1949. Its main office is in Washington, DC.
  • The World Constitution and Parliament Association (WCPA), created in 1958 to promote democratic world government. During the next 33 years the WCPA held four Global Constituent Assemblies centered around creating a Constitution for the Federation of Earth.

Organizations

  • Allida Black, June Hopkins, NPS.gov, "League of Nations." 2003, (accessed 4/9/2008)
  • Ankerl Guy. Global Communication without Universal Civilization: vol I: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. (INUPRESS, Geneva, 2000.)
  • Archibugi, Daniele, Amazon.com, "The Global Commonwealth of Citizens. Toward Cosmopolitan Democracy", (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008).
  • Baratta, Joseph. Barnesandnoble.com, The Politics of World Federation, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003). Introduction available Globalsolutions.org
  • Bruner Michael, Melissa Green, Lawrence McBride, The NYSTROM Atlas of World History, Edition 1, The NYSTROM Atlas, Volume 1, World History, Chicago, NYSTROM, 2004.
  • Cabrera, Luis. Political Theory of Global Justice: A Cosmopolitan Case for the World State (London: Routledge, 2004;2006).
  • Daniel Chu and Elliot Skinner, A Glorious Age in Africa, Edition 1, None, Volume 1, A Glorious Age in Africa, Tenton, Africa World Press, 2000.
  • Davis, Garry, My Country Is The World, (G.P. Putnam Sons, 1961).
  • Davis, Garry, World Government, Ready or Not! (World Government House, South Burlington, VT 05407, 1984).
  • Davis, Garry, Passport to Freedom, (Seven Locks Press, Cabin John, MD, 1992).
  • Davis, Garry, A World Citizen In the Holy Land, (World Government House, South Burlington, VT 05407)
  • Davis, Garry, Dear World, A Global Odyssey, (World Government House, South Burlington, VT, 05407,2000)
  • Davis, Garry, Letters to World Citizens, (World Government House, South Burlington, VT, 05407, 2004).
  • Davis, Garry, Views From My Space, (World Government House, South Burlington, VT, 05407, 2009).
  • Craig, Campbell. Glimmer of a New Leviathan: Total War in the Realism of Niebuhr, Morgenthau, and Waltz (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003).
  • Deudney, Daniel. Bounding Power: Republican Security Theory from the Polis to the Global Village (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006).
  • Dervis, Kermal. A Better Globalization: Legitimacy, Governance, and Reform. (Washington: Center for Global Development, 2005.) Selections available CGDEV.org
  • Domingo, Rafael, The New Global Law (Cambridge University Press, 2010).
  • Etzioni, Amitai. From Empire to Community: A New Approach to International Relations (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004)
  • Hamer, Chistopher. UNW.edu.au, Global Parliament - Principles of World Federation (Oyster Bay, NSW: Oyster Bay Books, 1998.)
  • Hooker, Richard, WSU.edu, 2/14/2008 "The Mongolian Empire: The Yuan" (6/6/1999)
  • Marchetti, Raffaele. Global Democracy: For and Against. Ethical Theory, Institutional Design and Social Struggles (London: Routledge, 2008) Amazon.com, . ISBN 978-0-415-55495-4
  • Monbiot, George. Thenewpress.com, Manifesto for a New World Order, (New York: New Press, 2005). Published in the United Kingdom as Amazon.co.uk, Age of Consent.
  • Rael, (real name Claude Vorihon), The Book Which Tells The Truth, Published first in France, 1974, (calls for a ‘World Government’, ‘World Language’, World Currency’ on page 100), free e-book download of 3-in-1 book compilation, http://rael.org/download.php?view.1 [31]
  • Rajan, Chella. GTinitiative.org, Global Politics and Institutions. GTI Paper 3#. (Boston: Tellus Institute, 2006). Additional papers in the GTI series available at GTinitiative.org.
  • Strauss, Andrew. Oneworldtrust.org, Taking Democracy Global: Assessing the Benefits and Challenges of a Global Parliamentary Assembly. (London: One World Trust, 2005).
  • Stark, Jim. Rescue Plan for Planet Earth: Democratic World Government through a Global Referendum (Toronto: Key Publishing House Inc, 2008)
  • Tamir, Yael. "Who's Afraid of a Global State?" in Kjell Goldman, Ulf Hannerz, and Charles Westin, eds., Nationalism and Internationalism in the post–Cold War Era (London: Routledge, 2000).
  • Wendt, Alexander. “Why a World State is Inevitable,” European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 9, No. 4 (2003), pp. 491–542
  • Yunker, James A. Political Globalization: A New Vision of Federal World Government (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2007).
  • MSN Encarta, "World Government." 2007, (accessed 5/4/2008).
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "World Government." December 4, 2006. Stanford.edu, (accessed 4/13/2008).
  • Trueman, Chris. "League of Nations." Historylearningsite.co.uk (accessed 4/9/2008).
  • United Nations Staff, "History of the UN." 2000. UN.org (accessed 4/10/2008).
  • Vandinja, Daniel, Free e-book download: ‘RAEL The Masonic Messiah’, Published in 2007, (Contains a critical examination of the by Rael described 'World Government', 'World Language', 'World Currency' and other subjects.) Daniel Vandinja is an ex-National Guide of the ‘International Raelian Movement’. http://realrael.org/masonic_messiah.pdf.[32]
  • We the People, The Roxbury Latin School.

Published works

Resources

See also


A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (UNPA) is a proposed addition to the Nobel and Right Livelihood laureates and 16 Heads or former heads of state or government and foreign ministers.[29][30]

Proposed United Nations Parliamentary Assembly

The Arab League. The member countries are Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkey. The remaining two Turkic states, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are not currently official members of the council. However, due to their neutral stance, they participate in international relations and are strongly predicted to be future members of the council. The idea of setting up this cooperative council was first put forward by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev back in 2006.

  Official members
  Prospective future members
  Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
 (only recognized by Turkey)

Turkic Council

On August 5, 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights in as much as they are compatible with the Sharia, or Quranic Law.[27]

The former flag of the OIC (shown on the right) has an overall green background (symbolic of Islam). In the centre, there is an upward-facing red crescent enveloped in a white disc. On the disc the words "Allahu Akbar" (Arabic for "God is great") are written in Arabic calligraphy.

According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values; promote solidarity amongst member states; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas; uphold international peace and security; and advance education, particularly in the fields of science and technology.[26]

[26] Since the 19th century, many

The Arabic, English and French.

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
  • منظمة التعاون الاسلامي (Arabic)
  • Organisation de la Coopération Islamique  (French)
Headquarters Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Official languages
Membership 57 member states
Leaders
 -  Secretary-General Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu
Establishment September 25, 1969
Website
http://www.oic-oci.org/

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

The India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Maldives and Bhutan. In April 2007, at the Association's 14th summit, Afghanistan became its eighth member.

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

The Union of South American Nations, modeled on the European Union, was founded between 2006 and 2008. It incorporates all the independent states of South America. These states are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Union of South American Nations

The region.

Map of Arab League members.

Arab League

The UN peacekeeping forces.[24] Some of the members of the CIS have established the Eurasian Economic Community with the aim of creating a full-fledged common market.

Map of CIS nations and observers.

Commonwealth of Independent States

The

Map of members and observers of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[22] as a display of solidarity against communist expansion in Vietnam and insurgency within their own borders. Its claimed aims include the acceleration of economic growth, social progress, cultural development among its members, and the promotion of regional peace.[23] All members later founded the Asia Cooperation Dialogue, which aims to unite the entire continent.

Map of ASEAN nations.

ASEAN

Projects for improved economic and political cooperation are also happening at a regional level with the Arab Maghreb Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the Economic Community of Central African States the Southern African Development Community and the East African Community.

The democracy, human rights, and a sustainable economy, especially by bringing an end to intra-African conflict and creating an effective common market.

Map of African Union nations.

African Union

Since the establishment of CARICOM by the mainly English Creole-speaking parts of the Caribbean region CARICOM has become multilingual in practice with the addition of Dutch speaking Suriname on 4 July 1995 (although the lingua franca in Suriname is Sranan Tongo, which is an English-based Creole like the languages spoken in much of the rest of CARICOM) and Haiti, where French and Haitian Creole are spoken, on 2 July 2002. In 2001, the heads of government signed a Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas in Trinidad and Tobago, clearing the way for the transformation of the idea for a Common Market aspect of CARICOM into instead a Caribbean Single Market and Economy. Part of the revised treaty among member states includes the establishment and implementation of the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ).

The CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME); and handling regional trade disputes.

Map of CARICOM nations.

CARICOM

The EU's example is being followed by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. A multitude of regional associations, aggregating most nations of the world, are at different stages of development towards a growing extent of economic, and sometimes political, integration. The European Union consists of twenty-eight European states. It has developed a “single market” which allows people of different countries to travel from state to state without a passport. This also includes the same policies when it comes to trading. The European Union is said to have 26% of the world's money. Not all EU member states use the Euro; the United Kingdom, for example, retains the pound sterling. Where the Euro is in place, it allows easy access for the free circulation of trade goods. Tariffs are also the same for each country allowing no unfair practices within the union.

The most relevant model for the incremental establishment of a global federation may be the European Union (EU), which politically unites a large group of widely diverse (and some formerly hostile) nations spread over a large geographical area and encompassing over 500 million people. Though the EU is still evolving, it already has many attributes of a federal government, such as open internal borders, a directly elected parliament, a court system, an official currency (Euro) and a centralized economic policy.

Map of European Union nations.

European Union

The collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe, the newest of which, Albania and Croatia, joined in April 2009. An additional 22 countries participate in NATO's "Partnership for Peace", with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs. The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the world's defence spending.[21]

NATO

Other organisations that have also discussed greater integration include:

There are a number of other regional organizations that, while not supranational unions, have adopted or intend to adopt policies that may lead to a similar sort of integration in some respects.

The only union generally recognized as having achieved the status of a supranational union is the European Union.[20]

A map indicating some of the world's supranational unions.

Existing regional unions of nations

In addition to the formal, or semi-formal, international organizations and laws mentioned above, many other mechanisms act to regulate human activities across national borders. In particular, international trade in goods, services and currencies (the "global market") has a tremendous impact on the lives of people in almost all parts of the world, creating deep interdependency amongst nations (see globalization). Trans-national (or multi-national) corporations, some with resources exceeding those available to most governments, govern activities of people on a global scale. The rapid increase in the volume of trans-border digital communications and mass-media distribution (e.g., Internet, satellite television) has allowed information, ideas, and opinions to rapidly spread across the world, creating a complex web of international coordination and influence, mostly outside the control of any formal organizations or laws.

International Criminal Court (ICC)
A relatively recent development in international law, the ICC (or ICCt) is the first permanent international criminal court established to ensure that the gravest international crimes (war crimes, genocide, other crimes against humanity, etc.) do not go unpunished. The ICC treaty was signed by 139 national governments, of which 100 ratified it by October 2005.
International Court of Justice (ICJ)
Also known as the World Court, the ICJ is the United Nations' judiciary organ. It settles disputes volunteered to it by (member) states and gives advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by other organs of the UN, such as the General Assembly or Security Council.
International law
Encompassing international treaties, customs and globally accepted legal principles. With the exceptions of cases brought before the ICC and ICJ (see below), the laws are interpreted by national courts. Many violations of treaty or customary law obligations are overlooked.
G20
An association of twenty developing and established nations and entities, including the European Union.
G7
An association of those seven nations with the world's highest Gross domestic products. The leaders of the G7 countries meet annually in person to coordinate their policies in confronting global issues, such as poverty, terrorism, infectious diseases, and climate change.
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Sets the rules of international trade. It has a semi-legislative body (the General Council, reaching decisions by consensus) and a judicial body (the Dispute Settlement Body). Another influential economical international organization is the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), with membership of 30 democratic members.
World Bank / International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Formed together in July 1944 at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States to foster global monetary cooperation and to fight poverty by financially assisting states in need.
United Nations (UN)
The primary formal organization coordinating activities between states on a global scale and the only inter-governmental organization with a truly universal membership (193 governments). In addition to the main organs and various humanitarian programs and commissions of the UN itself, there are about 20 functional organizations affiliated with the UN's Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), such as the World Trade Organization.
Militarily, the UN deploys peacekeeping forces, usually to build and maintain post-conflict peace and stability. When a more aggressive international military action is undertaken, either ad hoc coalitions (for example, the multinational force in Iraq) or regional military alliances (for example, NATO) are used.

Among the voluntary organizations and international arrangements are:

The Earth is divided geographically and demographically into mutually exclusive territories and political structures called states which are independent and sovereign in most cases. There are numerous bodies, institutions, unions, coalitions, agreements and contracts between these units of authority, but, except in cases where a nation is under military occupation by another, all such arrangements depend on the continued consent of the participant nations. Thus the use of violence is unprohibited throughout the realm and is only checked by the threat of retaliatory actions. Where no such threat exists a nation may freely use violence against another.

As of 2014, there is no functioning global international military, executive, legislature, judiciary, or constitution, with jurisdiction over the entire planet.

Flag of the World Health Organization.
Flag of the United Nations.

Current global governance system

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, interest in a federal world government and, more generally, in the global protection of human rights, was renewed. The most visible achievement of the world federalism movement during the 1990s is the Rome Statute of 1998, which led to the establishment of the International Criminal Court in 2002. In Europe, progress towards forming a federal union of European states gained much momentum, starting in 1952 as a trade deal between the German and French people lead, in 1992, to the Maastricht Treaty that established the name and enlarged the agreement that the European Union (EU) is based upon. The EU expanded (1995, 2004, 2007, 2013) to encompass, in 2013, over half a billion people in 28 member states. Following the EU's example, the African Union was founded in 2002 and the Union of South American Nations in 2008.

While enthusiasm for multinational federalism in Europe incrementally led, over the following decades, to the formation of the European Union, the onset of the Cold War (1946–1991) eliminated the prospects of any progress towards federation with a more global scope. The movement quickly shrank in size to a much smaller core of activists, and the world government idea all but disappeared from wide public discourse.

End of the Cold War (1991)

Legal anthropologist E. Adamson Hoebel concluded his treatise on broadening the legal realist tradition to include non-Western nations:[18] “Whatever the idealist may desire, force and the threat of force are the ultimate power in the determination of international behavior, as in the law within the nation or tribe. But until force and the threat of force in international relations are brought under social control by the world community, by and for the world society, they remain the instruments of social anarchy and not the sanctions of world law. The creation in clear-cut terms of the corpus of world law cries for the doing. If world law, however, is to be realized at all, there will have to be minimum of general agreement as to the nature of the physical and ideational world and the relation of men in society to it. An important and valuable next step will be found in deep-cutting analysis of the major law systems of the contemporary world in order to lay bare their basic postulates – postulates that are too generally hidden; postulates felt, perhaps, by those who live by them, but so much taken for granted that they are rarely expressed or exposed for examination. When this is done – and it will take the efforts of many keen intellects steeped in the law of at least a dozen lands and also aware of the social nexus of the law – then mankind will be able to see clearly for the first time and clearly where the common consensus of the great living social and law systems lies. Here will be found the common postulates and values upon which the world community can build. At the same time the truly basic points of conflict that will have to be worked upon for resolution will be revealed. Law is inherently purposive".

Legal Realism (1954)

[17] The World Passport is a 45-page document issued by the

World Passport

In France, 1948, Garry Davis began an unauthorized speech calling for a world government from the balcony of the UN General Assembly, until he was dragged away by the guards. Mr. Davis renounced his American citizenship and started a Registry of World Citizens, which claimed to have registered over 750,000 people in less than two years. Opinion polls carried out by UNESCO in 1948-1949 found world government favored by a majority of respondents in six European countries and rejected in three other countries (Australia, Mexico and the United States). On September 4, 1953, Davis announced from the city hall of Ellsworth, Maine the formation of the "World Government of World Citizens" based on 3 "World Laws" — One God (or Absolute Value), One World, and One Humanity.[14] Following this declaration, mandated, he claimed, by Article twenty one, Section three of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, he formed the United World Service Authority in New York City as the administrative agency of the new government. Its first task was to design and issue a "World Passport" based on Article 13, Section 2 of the UDHR. To date, over 800,000 of these documents have been issued to individuals worldwide. They have been recognized de facto by over 180 countries.[15]

Garry Davis

Similar movements concurrently formed in many other countries, leading to the formation, at a 1947 meeting in Montreux, Switzerland, of a global coalition, now called World Federalist Movement. By 1950, the movement claimed 56 member groups in 22 countries, with some 156,000 members.

The years between the conclusion of World War II and 1950, when the United World Federalists (later renamed to World Federalist Association, then Citizens for Global Solutions), claiming membership of 47,000 in 1949.

World Federalist Movement

World War II (1939–1945) resulted in an unprecedented scale of destruction of lives (over 60 million dead, most of them civilians), and the use of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Some of the acts committed against civilians during the war were on such a massive scale of savagery, they came to be widely considered as crimes against humanity itself. As the war's conclusion drew near, many shocked voices called for the establishment of institutions able to permanently prevent deadly international conflicts. This led to the founding of the United Nations in 1945, which adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. Many, however, felt that the UN, essentially a forum for discussion and coordination between sovereign governments, was insufficiently empowered for the task. A number of prominent persons, such as Albert Einstein, Winston Churchill, Bertrand Russell and Mohandas K. Gandhi, called on governments to proceed further by taking gradual steps towards forming an effectual federal world government. The United Nations main goal is to work on international law, international security, economic development, human rights, social progress, and eventually world peace. The United Nations replaced the League of Nations in 1945, after World War II. Almost every internationally recognized country is in the U.N.; as it contains 193 member states out of the 196 total nations of the world. The United Nations gather regularly in order to solve big problems throughout the world. There are six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish. The United Nations is also financed by some of the wealthiest nations. The flag shows the Earth from a map that shows all of the populated continents.

Emblem of the United Nations.

United Nations

The Atlantic Charter was a published statement agreed between the United Kingdom and the United States. It was intended as the blueprint for the postwar world after World War II, and turned out to be the foundation for many of the international agreements that currently shape the world. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the post-war independence of British and French possessions, and much more are derived from the Atlantic Charter. The Atlantic charter was made to show the goals of the allied powers during World War II. It first started with the United States and Great Britain, and later all the allies would follow the charter. Some goals include access to raw materials, reduction of trade restrictions, and freedom from fear and wants. The name, The Atlantic Charter, came from a newspaper that coined the title. However, Winston Churchill would use it, and from then on the Atlantic Charter was the official name. In retaliation, the Axis powers would raise their morale and try to work their way into Great Britain. The Atlantic Charter was a stepping stone into the creation of the United Nations.

Winston Churchill's edited copy of the final draft of the Atlantic Charter.

Atlantic Charter

[12], has attained uncontested supremacy". When this control would be achieved, this power could then set up for itself a world police and assure itself "the necessary living space.... The lower races will have to restrict themselves accordingly".racially best one could only be acquired "when one power, the world peace Hitler's belief that Walter Hewel relayed to Rudolf Hess In 1927 [12], in which the expansion of a state's population would require the conquest of more territory which would in turn lead to a further growth in population which would then require even more conquests.expansionism may have devised an ideological system of self-perpetuating Adolf Hitler) of the German people by destroying or driving out lesser-deserving races in and from other territories dictator Lebensraum In his desire and stated political aim of expanding the living space ([13]

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