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Velvet

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Velvet

Detail of a silk cut velvet with tartan pattern. Some of the stripes are voided, showing the plain-weave ground. c.1840.

Velvet is a type of woven tufted fabric in which the cut threads are evenly distributed, with a short dense pile, giving it a distinctive feel. By extension, the word velvety means "smooth like velvet." Velvet can be made from either synthetic or natural fibers.

Contents

  • Construction & composition 1
  • History 2
  • Entry from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1911) 3
  • Types 4
    • Gallery 4.1
  • Fibres 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7

Construction & composition

Illustration depicting the manufacture of velvet fabric

Velvet is woven on a special loom that weaves two thicknesses of the material at the same time. The two pieces are then cut apart to create the pile effect, and the two lengths of fabric are wound on separate take-up rolls. This complicated process meant that velvet was expensive to make before industrial power looms became available, and well-made velvet remains a fairly costly fabric. Velvet is difficult to clean because of its pile, but modern dry cleaning methods make cleaning more feasible. Velvet pile is created by warp or vertical yarns and velveteen pile is created by weft or fill yarns.

Velvet can be made from several different kinds of fibers, traditionally, the most expensive of which is silk. Much of the velvet sold today as "silk velvet" is actually a mix of rayon and silk.[1] Velvet made entirely from silk is rare and usually has market prices of several hundred US dollars per yard. Cotton is also used to make velvet, though this often results in a less luxurious fabric. Velvet can also be made from fibers such as linen, mohair, and wool. A cloth made by the Kuba people of the Democratic Republic of Congo from raffia is often referred to as "Kuba velvet". More recently, synthetic velvets have been developed, mostly from polyester, nylon, viscose, acetate, and from either mixtures of different synthetics or from combined synthetics and natural fibers (for example viscose mixed with silk produces a very soft, reflective fabric). A small percentage of spandex is sometimes added to give the final material a certain amount of stretch (hence "stretch velvet").

History

Velvet with Medici Arms, Florence or Venice, 1440–1500

Because of its unusual softness and appearance as well as its high cost of production, velvet has often been associated with nobility. Velvet was introduced to Baghdad during the rule of Harun al-Rashid by Kashmiri merchants and to Al-Andalus by Ziryab. In the Mamluk era, Cairo was the world's largest producer of velvet. Much of it was exported to Venice (from whence it spread to most of Europe), Al-Andalus and the Mali Empire. Musa I of Mali, the ruler of the Mali Empire, visited Cairo on his pilgrimage to Mecca. Many Arab velvet makers accompanied him back to Timbuktu. Later Ibn Battuta mentions how Suleyman (mansa), the ruler of Mali, wore a locally produced complete crimson velvet caftan on Eid. During the reign of Mehmed II, assistant cooks wore blue-coloured dresses (câme-i kebûd), conical hats (külâh) and baggy trousers (çaksir) made from Bursa velvet.

King Richard II of England directed in his will that his body should be clothed in velveto in 1399.[2]

Entry from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1911)

A cope in pile-on-pile velvet.

Types

  • Chiffon (or transparent) velvet: Very lightweight velvet on a sheer silk or rayon chiffon base.[3]
  • Ciselé: Velvet where the pile uses cut and uncut loops to create a pattern.[3]
  • Crushed: This type of velvet can be produced by pressing the fabric down in different directions. It can also be produced by mechanically twisting the fabric while wet. The result is patterned appearance that is very lustrous.[4]
  • Devoré or burnout. A velvet treated with a caustic solution to dissolve areas of the pile, creating a velvet pattern upon a sheer or lightweight base fabric.[4]
  • Embossed: A metal roller is used to heat-stamp the fabric, producing a pattern.[4]
  • Hammered: This type is extremely lustrous, appears dappled, and somewhat crushed.[4]
  • Lyons: A densely woven, stiff, heavier-weight pile velvet used for hats, coat collars and garments.[3][5]
  • Mirror: A type of exceptionally soft and light crushed velvet.[5]
  • Nacré: Velvet with an effect similar to shot silk, where the pile is woven in one or more colours and the base fabric in another, creating a changeable, iridescent effect.[3][5]
  • Panne: Also a type of crushed velvet, panne is produced by forcing the pile in a single direction by applying heavy pressure.[6] Sometimes, less frequently, called paon velvet.[7]
  • Pile-on-pile: A particularly luxurious type of velvet woven with piles of differing heights to create a pattern.[8][9]
  • Plain: Commonly made of cotton, this type of velvet has a firm hand and can be used for many purposes.[4]
  • Utrecht: A pressed and crimped velvet associated with Utrecht, the Netherlands.[3]
  • Velveteen is a type of imitation velvet.[6] It is normally made of cotton or a combination of cotton and silk. It has a pile that is short (never more than 3mm deep), and is closely set. It has a firm hand and a slightly sloping pile. Unlike true velvet, this type has greater body, does not drape as easily, and has less sheen.[4]
  • Voided is deliberately woven with areas of pile-free ground (usually satin) forming the pattern.[10]
  • Wedding ring or ring velvet: Another term for devoré and/or chiffon velvets which are allegedly fine enough to be drawn through a ring.[11]

Gallery

Fibres

  • Silk: More expensive than plain velvet, this type is usually shinier and softer than the cotton variety.[4]
  • Viscose: In terms of quality, this type is more similar to silk velvet than cotton velvet.[4]

See also

References

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain

  1. ^
  2. ^ L W Cowrie Dictionary of British Social History Wordsworth Reference p.304 ISBN 1-85326-378-8
  3. ^ a b c d e
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h
  5. ^ a b c
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
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