World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Poncho

Araucanian Indians and gauchos in Chile, 19th century
A Peruvian chalán dancing marinera on a peruvian paso horse.
Poncho of Argentina

A poncho (Spanish pronunciation: ; punchu in Quechua; Mapudungun pontro, blanket, woolen fabric)[1][2][3] is an outer garment designed to keep the body warm. A rain poncho is made from a watertight material designed to keep the body dry from the rain. Ponchos have been used by the Native American peoples of the Andes since pre-Hispanic times and are now considered typical South American garments.

Contents

  • Types of ponchos 1
    • Traditional ponchos 1.1
    • Military ponchos 1.2
  • Trivia 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Types of ponchos

In its simplest form the poncho is essentially a single large sheet of fabric with an opening in the center for the head and often it has an extra piece of fabric serving as a hood. Rainproof ponchos normally are fitted with fasteners to close the sides once the poncho is draped over the body, with openings provided for the arms; many have hoods attached to ward off wind and rain.

Alternative ponchos are now designed as fashion items.[4] They are the same shape but of different material. They are designed to look fashionable and provide warmth while remaining breathable and comfortable, rather than to ward off wind and rain. These are often made out of wool or yarn, knitted or crocheted. Ponchos with festive designs or colors can be worn at special events as well.

Traditional ponchos

A market scene in Bogotá, circa 1860
Néstor Kirchner (right) wearing a poncho in 2004.
Poncho of Andean inspired design in a flea market in Genoa, Italy
Mapuche cacique Lloncon wearing a poncho in 1890.
Alpaca Ponchos at the Otavalo Artisan Market in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador.

The poncho was one of the typical clothes of the Paracas, a Peruvian, Pre-Inca Culture around 500 B.C.[5] Nowadays the poncho is commonly associated with the Americas. As traditional clothing, the local names and variants are:

Military ponchos

The poncho was first used on a regular basis in the 1850s for irregular U.S. military forces operating on the U.S.

The dictionary definition of poncho at Wiktionary

External links

  1. ^ Muñoz Urrutia, Rafael, ed. (2006). Diccionario Mapuche: Mapudungun/Español, Español/Mapudungun (in Spanish) (2nd ed.). Santiago, Chile: Editorial Centro Gráfico Ltda. p. 183.  
  2. ^ Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. "Poncho". Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  3. ^ Harper, Douglas. "OnlineEtymologyDictionary: Poncho". Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  4. ^ Photo Gallery of fashionable women's poncho tops - An alternative to everyday clothing
  5. ^ Photo Gallery of the Paracas Clothes - A Poncho of 200 B.C.
  6. ^ Marcy, Randolph B. (Capt), The Prairie Traveler, U.S. War Department (1859), reprinted by Applewood Books (1988)
  7. ^ a b c d e Kearny, Cresson H., Jungle Snafus...And Remedies, Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine (1996), pp. 231-236
  8. ^ Spanish American War Poncho, Oshkosh Public Museum, http://www.oshkoshmuseum.org/Virtual/exhibit4/e40126a.htm
  9. ^ Keene, Jennifer D., World War I, Greenwood Publishing Group (2006), ISBN 0-313-33181-2, ISBN 978-0-313-33181-7, p. 130
  10. ^ George, John B. (Lt. Col.), Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press (1981), p. 459

References

  • Serape, a poncho-like garment traditional to the Mexican state of Coahuila
  • Aguayo a typical Andean piece of cloth.
  • Ruana
  • Cape
  • Cloak
  • Belted plaid, a garment that could also double as a blanket or groundsheet.
  • Rebozo longer scarf like shawl without hole, tied around shoulder and can be used to carry a baby.
  • Baja Jacket

See also

Trivia

APEC leaders wearing chamantos during the 2004 summit

During the World War II, the German Army (Wehrmacht) issued the Zeltbahn (see Shelter half), a poncho that could be combined to form tents. A typical four-man tent used four Zeltbahnen.

Just prior to World War II, ponchos were significantly improved during testing with the U.S. Army Jungle Experimental Platoon in the jungles of Panama, incorporating new, lighter materials and a drawcord hood that could be closed off to form a rain fly or ground sheet.[7] Ponchos were widely used by United States armed forces during World War II; even lightly equipped foot-mounted forces such as Merrill's Marauders, forced to discard tentage and all other unnecessary equipment, retained their blanket and poncho.[10] During the 1950s, new lightweight coated nylon and other synthetic materials were developed for military ponchos. The poncho has remained in service ever since as a standard piece of U.S. military field equipment.[7] Today, the United States armed forces issue ponchos that may be used as a field expedient shelter. These garments are also used by hunters, campers, and rescue workers.

Discontinued after the Civil War, the U.S. Army again issued ponchos of waterproof rubberized canvas to its forces during the Spanish–American War of 1898.[8] Two years later, both the Army and the Marines were forced to issue waterproof rubberized cloth ponchos with high neck collars during the Philippine–American War in 1900.[7] With the entry of the United States into World War I, both doughboys and Marines in France wore the poncho; it was preferred over the raincoat for its ability to keep both the wearer and his pack dry, as well as serving as a roof for a makeshift shelter.[9]

[7]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.