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Fred M. Vinson

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Fred M. Vinson

Fred Vinson
13th Chief Justice of the United States
In office
June 21, 1946 – September 8, 1953
Appointed by Harry Truman
Preceded by Harlan Stone
Succeeded by Earl Warren
53rd United States Secretary of the Treasury
In office
July 23, 1945 – June 23, 1946
President Harry Truman
Preceded by Henry Morgenthau
Succeeded by John Snyder
2nd Director of the Office of Economic Stabilization
In office
May 28, 1943 – July 23, 1945
President Franklin Roosevelt
Preceded by James Byrnes
Succeeded by William Davis
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
In office
December 15, 1937 – May 28, 1943
Appointed by Franklin Roosevelt
Preceded by Charles Robb
Succeeded by Wilbur Miller
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Kentucky's 8th district
In office
March 4, 1933 – May 27, 1938
Preceded by Ralph Gilbert
Succeeded by Joe Bates
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Kentucky's 9th district
In office
March 4, 1931 – March 3, 1933
Preceded by Elva Kendall
Succeeded by John Brown
In office
January 24, 1924 – March 3, 1929
Preceded by William Fields
Succeeded by Elva Kendall
Personal details
Born Frederick Moore Vinson
(1890-01-22)January 22, 1890
Louisa, Kentucky, U.S.
Died September 8, 1953(1953-09-08) (aged 63)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s) Julia Roberta Dixon
Children Frederick Moore
James
Alma mater Centre College
Religion Methodism
Military service
Allegiance  United States
Service/branch  United States Army
Years of service 1917–1919
Battles/wars World War I

Frederick "Fred" Moore Vinson (January 22, 1890 – September 8, 1953) was an American politician who served the United States in all three branches of government and was the most prominent member of the Vinson political family. In the legislative branch, he was an elected member of the United States House of Representatives from Louisa, Kentucky, for twelve years. In the executive branch, he was the Secretary of Treasury under President Harry S. Truman. In the judicial branch, in 1946 President Truman appointed Vinson the 13th Chief Justice of the United States. As of 2015, he is the last candidate nominated by a president from the Democratic Party to be confirmed as Chief Justice (Lyndon Johnson unsuccessfully nominated Abe Fortas as Chief Justice in 1968, but Fortas later withdrew his name from consideration).[1][2]

Contents

  • Early years 1
  • U.S. Representative from Kentucky 2
  • U.S. Court of Appeals 3
  • Secretary of Treasury 4
  • Chief Justice 5
  • Potential cabinet position 6
  • Death and legacy 7
  • See also 8
  • Further reading 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Early years

Birthplace of Fred Vinson in Louisa, Kentucky

Frederick Vinson, known universally as "Fred", was born in the newly built, eight-room, red brick house in front of the Lawrence County jail, Louisa, Kentucky, where his father served as the Lawrence County Jailer. As a child he would help his father in the jail and even made friends with prisoners who would remember his kindness when he later ran for public office. Vinson worked odd jobs while in school. He graduated from Kentucky Normal School in 1908 and enrolled at Centre College, where he graduated at the top of his class. While at Centre, he was a member of the Kentucky Alpha Delta chapter of Phi Delta Theta fraternity. He became a lawyer in Louisa, a small town of 2,500 residents. He first ran for, and was elected to, office as the City Attorney of Louisa.

He joined the Army during World War I. Following the war, he was elected as the Commonwealth's Attorney for the Thirty-Second Judicial District of Kentucky. Vinson married Julia Roberta Dixon on January 24, 1924 in Ashland, Kentucky. They had two sons:

  • Frederick Vinson, Jr., who married to the former Nell Morrison and had two children: Frederick M. Vinson III and Carolyn Pharr Vinson
  • James Vinson, who married to the former Margaret Russell and had four children: James Robert Vinson, Margaret Vinson, Michael Arthur Vinson and Matthew Dixon Vinson.

U.S. Representative from Kentucky

In 1924, he ran in a special election for his district's seat in Congress after William J. Fields resigned to become the governor of Kentucky. Vinson was elected as a Democrat and then was reelected twice before losing in 1928. His loss was attributed to his refusal to dissociate his campaign from Alfred E. Smith's presidential campaign. However, Vinson came back to win re-election in 1930, and he served in Congress through 1937, the year he is alleged to have falsified the Congressional Record with regard to testimony of Dr. William C. Woodward during passage of the Marihuana [sic] Tax Act of 1937. When the position of the American Medical Association on the measure was questioned, Vinson misrepresented both Woodward's and the AMA's position while referring to Woodward as "Dr. William Wharton".

While he was in Congress he befriended Missouri Senator Harry S. Truman, a friendship that would last throughout his life. He soon became a close advisor, confidant, card player, and dear friend to Truman. After Truman decided against running for another term as president in the early 1950s, he tried to convince a skeptical Vinson to seek the Democratic Party nomination, but Vinson turned down the President's offer. After being equally unsuccessful in enlisting General Dwight D. Eisenhower, President Truman eventually landed on Governor of Illinois Adlai Stevenson as his preferred successor in the 1952 presidential election.

U.S. Court of Appeals

Vinson's Congressional service ended after he was nominated by Franklin D. Roosevelt on November 26, 1937, to the federal bench. Roosevelt wanted him to fill a seat vacated by Charles H. Robb on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. Vinson was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 9, 1937, and received his commission on December 15, 1937. While he was there, he was designated by Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone on March 2, 1942, as chief judge of the United States Emergency Court of Appeals. He served here until his resignation on May 27, 1943.

Secretary of Treasury

Official portrait as Secretary of Treasury
Vinson's signature, as used on American currency

He resigned from the bench to become Director of the Office of Economic Stabilization, an executive agency charged with fighting inflation. He also spent time as Federal Loan Administrator (March 6 to April 3, 1945) and director of War Mobilization and Reconversion (April 4 to July 22, 1945). He was appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury by President Truman and served from July 23, 1945, to June 23, 1946.

His mission as Secretary of the Treasury was to stabilize the American economy during the last months of the war and to adapt the United States financial position to the drastically changed circumstances of the postwar world. Before the war ended, Vinson directed the last of the great war-bond drives.

At the end of the war, he negotiated payment of the British Loan of 1946, the largest loan made by the United States to another country ($3.75 billion), and the lend-lease settlements of economic and military aid given to the allies during the war. In order to encourage private investment in postwar America, he promoted a tax cut in the Revenue Act of 1945. He also supervised the inauguration of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund, both created at the Bretton Woods Conference of 1944, acting as the first chairman of their respective boards. In 1946, Vinson resigned from the Treasury to be appointed Chief Justice of the United States by Truman; the Senate confirmed him by voice vote on June 20 of that year (E. H. Moore had expressed opposition but was not present for the vote).

Chief Justice

Swearing in of Chief Justice Vinson on White house portico

Vinson took the oath of office as Chief Justice on June 24, 1946.[3] President Truman had nominated his old friend after Harlan Fiske Stone died. See Harry S. Truman Supreme Court candidates. His appointment came at a time when the Supreme Court was deeply fractured, both intellectually and personally. One faction was led by Justice Hugo Black, the other by Justice Felix Frankfurter. Some of the justices would not even speak to one another. Vinson was credited with patching this fracture, at least on a personal level.

Fred M. Vinson bust, US Supreme Court, Washington, DC, USA. Sculptor Jimilu Mason

In his time on the Supreme Court, he wrote 77 opinions for the court and 13 dissents. His most dramatic dissent was when the court voided President Truman's seizure of the steel industry during a strike in a June 3, 1952 decision, Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer. His final public appearance at the court was when he read the decision not to review the conviction and death sentence of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. After Justice William O. Douglas granted a stay of execution to the Rosenbergs at the last moment, Chief Justice Vinson sent special flights out to bring vacationing justices back to Washington in order to ensure the execution of the Rosenbergs. During his tenure as Chief Justice, one of his law clerks was future Associate Justice Byron White.

The major issues his court dealt with included racial segregation, labor unions, communism and loyalty oaths. On racial segregation, he wrote that states practicing the separate but equal doctrine must provide facilities that were truly equal, in Sweatt v. Painter and McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents. The case of Briggs v. Elliott was before the Court at the time of his death. Vinson, not wanting a 5-4 decision, had ordered a second hearing of the case. He died before the case could be reheard, and his vote may have been pivotal, q.v., discussion of Brown in Felix Frankfurter. Upon his death, Earl Warren was appointed to the Court and the case was heard again.

As Chief Justice, he swore in Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower as Presidents.

Vinson is the last Chief Justice to have been appointed by a Democratic President, namely Harold Hitz Burton, the sole remaining Republican on the Court upon Vinson's death, had been nominated to the Court by Truman).

Potential cabinet position

When Secretary of State Dean Acheson came under fire from congressional Republicans for being "soft on communism" at the end of 1950 Vinson was briefly mentioned as the new Secretary of State and Dean Acheson as the new Chief Justice. This speculation died down when President Truman retained Acheson at the State Department.

Death and legacy

Vinson died suddenly and unexpectedly on September 8, 1953, from a heart attack at his Washington home, and his body is interred in Pinehill Cemetery, Louisa, Kentucky.[4]

An extensive collection of Vinson's personal and judicial papers is archived at the University of Kentucky in Lexington, where they are available for research.

A portrait of Vinson hangs in the hallway of the chapter house of the Kentucky Alpha-Delta chapter of Phi Delta Theta (ΦΔΘ) international fraternity, at Centre College. Vinson was a member of the chapter in his years at Centre. Affectionately known as "Dead Fred", the portrait is taken by fraternity members to Centre football and basketball games and other events.

See also

Further reading

  • Abraham, Henry J., Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court. 3d. ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). ISBN 0-19-506557-3.
  • Cushman, Clare, The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies,1789-1995 (2nd ed.) (Supreme Court Historical Society), (Congressional Quarterly Books, 2001) ISBN 1-56802-126-7; ISBN 978-1-56802-126-3.
  • Frank, John P., The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions (Leon Friedman and Fred L. Israel, editors) (Chelsea House Publishers: 1995) ISBN 0-7910-1377-4, ISBN 978-0-7910-1377-9.
  • Hall, Kermit L., ed. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-19-505835-6; ISBN 978-0-19-505835-2.
  • Martin, Fenton S. and Goehlert, Robert U., The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography, (Congressional Quarterly Books, 1990). ISBN 0-87187-554-3.
  • Pritchett, C. Herman, Civil Liberties and the Vinson Court. (The University of Chicago Press, 1969) ISBN 978-0-226-68443-7; ISBN 0-226-68443-1.
  • St. Clair, James E., and Gugin, Linda C., Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson of Kentucky: A Political Biography (University Press of Kentucky: 2002) ISBN 0-8131-2247-3; ISBN 978-0-8131-2247-2.
  • Symposium, In Memoriam: Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson, 49 Northwestern University Law Review 1–75, (1954).
  • Urofsky, Melvin I., Division and Discord: The Supreme Court under Stone and Vinson, 1941-1953 (University of South Carolina Press, 1997) ISBN 1-57003-120-7.
  • Urofsky, Melvin I., The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary (New York: Garland Publishing 1994). 590 pp. ISBN 0-8153-1176-1; ISBN 978-0-8153-1176-8.

References

  1. ^ "Fred M. Vinson". Laws.com. Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  2. ^ David Leonhardt (June 2, 2014). "The Supreme Court Blunder That Liberals Tend to Make", The New York Times. Retrieved June 3, 2014.
  3. ^ Video: Big Four Turns Down Austria on Tyrol, 1946/06/24 (1946).  
  4. ^ Frederick M. Vinson memorial at University of Alabama.

External links

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
William Fields
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Kentucky's 9th congressional district

1924–1929
Succeeded by
Elva Kendall
Preceded by
Elva Kendall
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Kentucky's 9th congressional district

1931–1933
Succeeded by
John Brown
Preceded by
Ralph Gilbert
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Kentucky's 8th congressional district

1933–1938
Succeeded by
Joe Bates
Legal offices
Preceded by
Charles Robb
Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit
1937–1943
Succeeded by
Wilbur Miller
Preceded by
Harlan Stone
Chief Justice of the United States
1946–1953
Succeeded by
Earl Warren
Political offices
Preceded by
James Byrnes
Director of the Office of Economic Stabilization
1943–1945
Succeeded by
William Davis
Preceded by
Henry Morgenthau
United States Secretary of the Treasury
1945–1946
Succeeded by
John Snyder
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