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List of expeditions of Muhammad

 

List of expeditions of Muhammad

This list of expeditions of Muhammad, also includes a list of battles of Muhammad and comprises information about casualties, objectives, and nature of the military expeditions ordered by Muhammad, as well as the primary sources which mention the expeditions.

Contents

  • List of expeditions 1
  • Notes 2
  • References 3
  • Main sources 4

List of expeditions

Key/Legend

      Sariyyah (expeditions which he ordered but did not take part (73))       Ghazwah (expeditions which he ordered and took part (27))

No. Name Date Muhammad's order and reason for expedition Casualties description Notable primary sources
1 Al Is Caravan Raid 623 [1][2][3][4] Raid Quraysh caravan to relieve themselves from poverty[5]
  • None [2]
2 Batn Rabigh Caravan Raid 623 [1][2][3][6] Raid Quraysh caravan to relieve themselves from poverty[4][5]
  • None, caravan left [2]
3 Kharar Caravan Raid May & June 623 [1][2][3][4][8] Attack a Quraysh caravan[4]
  • None, caravan left[2]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[7]
4 Invasion of Waddan August 623 [8][9] Attack a Quraysh caravan which included camels[4][8]
  • Unknown
5 Invasion of Buwat October 623 [11][12] Raid a Quraysh caravan which included 200 camels[13][14]
  • None, caravan left [2]
6 Invasion of Dul Ashir December 623 [15] Attack a Quraysh caravan[6]
  • None, caravan left [13][16]
7 Invasion of Safwan 623 [15] To pursue Kurz ibn Jabir al-Fihri who led a small group that looted Muhammad's animals[13]
  • None, enemy escaped [13]
8 Nakhla Raid January 624[15] Attack a Quraysh caravan and gather information[6][18]
  • Muslims: 0 Casualties
  • Non-Muslims: 1 killed, 2 captured [18]
9 Battle of Badr March 624 [22] According to the Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri the purpose was to raid a Quraysh caravan carrying 50,000 gold Dinars guarded by 40 men, and to further the Muslim political, economic and military position.[23] The Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir also said the purpose of this battle was to capture Quraysh war booty/spoils and make Islam dominant by raiding the Quraysh Caravan, he claimed Muhammad encouraged the Muslims by saying: "This is the caravan of Quraysh carrying their property, so march forth to intercept it, Allah might make it as war spoils for you".[24]
  • Muslims: 14 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 70 killed, 30-47 captured[25]
10 Assassination of Asma bint Marwan January 624 [29] Kill 'Asma' bint Marwan for opposing Muhammad with poetry and for provoking others to attack him[30]
  • Asma' bint Marwan assassinated[28]
11 Assassination of Abu Afak February 624 [32] Kill Abu Afak for opposing Muhammad through poetry[31]
  • Abu Afak assassinated[31]
12 Invasion of Sawiq 624 [35] Pursue [36]
  • 2 Muslims killed[36]
13 Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa February 624 [39] Attack the Banu Qaynuqa Jews for allegedly breaking the treaty known as the Constitution of Medina[40] by pinning the clothes of a Muslim woman, which lead to her being stripped naked[41]
  • Unknown, some revenge killings[41]
14 Al Kudr Invasion May 624 [48] Surprise attack on the Banu Salim tribe for allegedly plotting to attack Medina[49]
  • Unknown
15 Invasion of Thi Amr September 624 [51][52] Raid the Banu Muharib and Banu Talabah tribes after he received intelligence that they were allegedly going to raid the outskirts of Medina[53]
  • 1 captured by Muslims[53]
16 Assassination of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf September 624 [55] According to Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad ordered his followers to kill Ka'b because he "had gone to Mecca after Badr and inveighed against Muhammad. He also composed verses in which he bewailed the victims of Quraysh who had been killed at Badr. Shortly afterwards he returned to Medina and composed amatory verses of an insulting nature about the Muslim women".[56][57]
  • Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf assassinated[57]
17 Invasion of Bahran 624 [58] Raid the Banu Sulaym tribe,[59] no reason given in primary sources ( Possibly a continuation of the previous war)
  • None [58]
18 Nejd Caravan Raid 624 [58] Intercept and capture Quraysh caravan and its goods[58]
  • 3 captured by Muslims(including guide) [58]
19 Expedition of 'Abdullah ibn 'Atik December 624 [63] Kill Abu Rafi' ibn Abi Al-Huqaiq for mocking Muhammad with his poetry and for helping the troops of the Confederates by providing them with money and supplies[64]
  • Abu Rafi assassinated[64]
20 Battle of Uhud March 23 625 [67][68] Defend against Quraysh attack[69]
  • Muslims: 70 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 22 or 37 Killed[69]
21 Invasion of Hamra al-Asad March 625[73] Prevent Quraysh attack on weakened Muslim army[74]
  • Muslims: 2 spies killed
  • Non-Muslims: 3 beheaded, 3 captured[74]
22 Expedition of Qatan June 625 [73] Attack Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe after receiving intelligence that they were allegedly plotting to attack Medina[81]
  • 3 captured by Muslims[82]
23 Expedition of Abdullah Ibn Unais 625 [83] Kill Khalid bin Sufyan, because there were reports he considered an attack on Madinah and that he was inciting the people on Nakhla or Uranah to fight Muslims[83]
  • Khalid ibn Sufyan assassinated[83]
24 Expedition of Al Raji 625 [88] Some men requested that Muhammad send instructors to teach them Islam,[88] but the men were bribed by the two tribes of Khuzaymah who wanted revenge for the [89] According to William Montgomery Watt, the seven men Muhammad sent may have been spies for Muhammad and instructors for Arab tribes.[90] Watt's claim that they were spies and not missionaries is mentioned in the Sunni hadith collection Sahih al-Bukhari [91]
  • 8[88] or 10 Muslims killed[3]
25 The Mission of Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri 627 [94] Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri sent to assassinate Abu Sufyan[95] to avenge Khubyab bin Adi.[96] According to the Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri, the Quraysh ordered Khubyab bin Adi to be crucified by Uqba bin al-Harith during the Expedition of Al Raji because he had killed Uqba bin al-Harith's father.[97]
  • 3 polytheists killed by Muslims[95]
  • 1 captured[98]
  • Tabari, Volume 7, The foundation of the community[99]
26 Expedition of Bir Maona July 625 [100] Muhammad sends Missionaries at request of some men from the Banu Amir tribe,[101] but the Muslims are killed as revenge for the [89]
  • Muslims: 70 killed[101]
  • Non-Muslims: 2 killed[101]
27 Invasion of Banu Nadir August 625 [104] Muslim scholars (like Mubarakpuri) claim, the Banu Nadir were attacked because the Angel Gabriel told Muhammad that some of the Banu Nadir wanted to assassinate him.[105] Watt contends it was in response to the tribe’s criticism of Muhammad and doubts they wanted to assassinate Muhammad. He says "it is possible that the allegation was no more than an excuse to justify the attack".[106]
  • Unknown
28 Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa October 625[110] or 627[108] Attack the Banu Ghatafan tribe, because he received news that they were assembling at Dhat al-Riqa with a suspicious purpose[108]
  • Many women captured by Muslims[111]
29 Invasion of Badr January 626[3] or March 625[94][113] Attack the Quraysh led by Abu Sufyan, both sides were preparing to fight each other again at Badr[114]
  • None, enemy flees[114]
30 Invasion of Dumatul Jandal July 626 [116] Invade Duma, because Muhammad received intelligence that some tribes there were involved in highway robbery and preparing to attack Medina itself[117]
  • None, Ghatafan tribe flees[117]
31 Battle of the Trench February 627 [120] Muhammad orders Muslims to defend Medina from attack, after Banu Nadir and Banu Qaynuqa tribes form an alliance with the Quraysh to attack him as revenge for expelling them from Medina.[121][122] The Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir states: "The reason why the Confederates came was that a group of the leaders of the Jews of Banu Nadir, whom the Messenger of Allah had expelled from Al-Madinah to Khaybar, including Sallam bin Abu Al-Huqayq, Sallam bin Mishkam and Kinanah bin Ar-Rabi`, went to Makkah where they met with the leaders of Quraysh and incited them to make war against the Prophet" [123]
  • Muslims: light casualties
  • Non-Muslims: extremely heavy casualties[124]
32 Invasion of Banu Qurayza February–March 627 [126]

Attack Banu Qurayza because according to Muslim tradition he had been ordered to do so by the angel Gabriel.[76][77][78][127][128][129] Al-Waqidi claims Muhammad had a treaty with the tribe which was torn apart. Stillman and Watt deny the authenticity of al-Waqidi.[130] Al-Waqidi has been frequently criticized by Muslim writers, who claim that he is unreliable.[131][132]

  • Muslims: 2 killed[127]
  • Non-Muslims:
  1. 600-900 beheaded (Tabari, Ibn Hisham)[127][128][133]
  2. All Males and 1 woman beheaded (Sunni Hadith)[134][135]
33 Expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah June 627 [139] Attack Bani Bakr sept for booty/spoils[140][141][142]
  • 10 killed, 1 captured by Muslims[141][142]
34 Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan 627 [144] Attack Banu Assad bin Qhuzayma tribe to capture booty/spoils[144][145]
  • None, Banu Asad tribe flees[146]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[145]
35 First Raid on Banu Thalabah August 627 [3][94][147] Attack the Banu Thalabah tribe, because he suspected they would be tempted to steal his camels[146]
  • 9 Muslims killed[146]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[148]
36 Second Raid on Banu Thalabah August 627 [3][94][147] Attack the Banu Thalabah tribe, as revenge for the 1st failed raid on them in which 9 Muslims died[146]
  • 1 injured man captured by Muslims[146]
  • Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet[149]
37 Invasion of Banu Lahyan September 627 [3][94] Attack the Banu Lahyan tribe to get revenge for the killing of 10 Muslims in the Expedition of Al Raji[146]
  • None, Banu Lahyan tribe flees[146]
38 Raid on al-Ghabah

627[152]

Initially no orders given by Muhammad, Amr ibn al-Akwa pursues Uyanah bin Hisn Al-Fazari after seeing him seize 20 of Muhammad's camels while calling for help.[152] Muhammad then heard the calls and sent reinforcements.[153]
  • 1 Muslim shepherd killed, and his wife captured[152]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[152]
  • Tabari, Volume 8, History of Islam [154]
39 Expedition of Dhu Qarad September 627 [3][94] To attack a group of men led by Uyanah bin Hisn Al-Fazari, who raided the outskirts of the Medina; and seized 20 of Muhammad's milch camels[155]
  • Muslims: 4 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 4 Killed [156]
40 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Jumum) 627 [146] To raid al-Jumum and capture booty/spoils[158]
  • Some captured by Muslims[146]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[159]
41 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Is) September 627 [160] Attack Quraysh caravan and loot their camels[146][161]
  • Many captured by Muslims[146][161]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[161]
42 Third Raid on Banu Thalabah 627 [94] To raid Banu Thalabah and capture their camels as booty[162]
  • None, Banu Thalabah tribe flees[162]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[163]
43 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Hisma) October 627 [94] Attack robbers who attacked Muhammad's envoy, Dhiyah bin Khalifah al-Kalbi[164]
  • Heavy casualties inflicted, 100 women and boys captured by Muslims[164]
44 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Wadi al-Qura) December 627 [166] Survey the area and to monitor the movements of the enemies of Muhammad[162]
  • 9 Muslims killed[162][167]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[167]
45 Invasion of Banu Mustaliq December 627 [94] Attack Banu Mustaliq because Muhammad received some rumours that the Banu Mustaliq were preparing to attack him.[168] The Banu Mustaliq also believed that Muhammad was preparing to attack them, both sides sent spies to confirm the reports, but the Banu Mustaliq spy was killed by Muslims, and then Muhammad told his followers to prepare for war[169]
  • Muslims: 1 killed
    (friendly fire)
  • Non-Muslims: 10 killed, 200 families taken captive[169][170]
46 Expedition of Abdur Rahman bin Auf December 627 [94] 700 men sent to get the Christian king Al-Asbagh and his people to convert to Islam within 3 days or pay Jizyah[172][173]
  • None[174]
47 Expedition of Fidak 627 [94] Attack the Bani Sa‘d bin Bakr tribe, because Muhammad received intelligence they were planning to help the Jews of Khaybar[176]
  • 1 captured by Muslims, rest of tribe flees[177]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[177]
48 Second Expedition of Wadi al-Qura January 628 [94] Raid the inhabitants of Wadi al-Qura for revenge, because a number of Muslims were killed when they tried to raid the inhabitants previously, but failed[178]
  • 30 horsemen,[179] and 1 women killed by Muslims[180]
  • Many captured by Muslims[180]
49 Expedition of Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri February 628 [94] Capture 8 men who came to him to convert to Islam, but then killed one Muslim and drove off with Muhammad's camels[181]
  • Muslims: 1 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 8 tortured to death[181][182]
50 Expedition of Abdullah ibn Rawaha February 628 [94] Kill Al-Yusayr ibn Rizam because Muhammad heard that his group was preparing to attack him[184][185]
  • 30 killed by Muslims[184][185]
51 Treaty of Hudaybiyyah March 628 [189] March to Mecca to perform the lesser pilgrimage (Umrah)[190]
  • None
52 Conquest of Fidak May 628 [192] To force the Jews of Fidak to surrender their properties and wealth(accepting his terms) or be attacked[137]
  • None
53 Battle of Khaybar May/June 628 [195] To attack the Jews of Khaybar for booty to distribute to his followers whose expectations had recently been disappointed (according to Watt)[196]
  • Muslims: 16-18 killed
  • Jews: 93 killed[197]
54 Third Expedition of Wadi al Qura May 628 [192] Attack the Jews of Wadi al Qura to conquer their land[200]
  • Muslims: 1 killed[201]
  • Jews: 11 killed[197]
55 Expedition of Umar ibn al-Khatab December 628 [94] Attack Banu Hawazin for booty[202]
  • None, tribe flees[185]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[202]
56 Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq December 628 [94] Attack the Banu Kilab tribe[203]
  • Many killed[203]
    (at least 7 families killed[204]) by Muslims
57 Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Fadak) December 628 [206] Attack for Banu Murrah tribe to capture booty [207][208]
  • Muslims: 29 killed,[185] Bashir wounded[209]
  • Non-Muslims: large amount killed[185]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[208]
58 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Mayfah) January 629 [206] Attack the Banu ‘Awâl and Banu Thalabah tribes to capture booty (camels and flock)[210]
  • Some killed by Muslims[185]
59 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Fadak) May 629[213] Attack the Banu Murrah as revenge for the killing of Muslims in a failed raid carried out by Muslims[214]
  • Everyone who came into contact with Muslims were killed[214]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[215]
60 Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Yemen) February 629 [206] Attack a large group of polytheists who Muhammad believed gathered to raid the outskirts of Madinah[185]
  • 1 killed, 2 captured by Muslims[216]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[216]
61 Expedition of Ibn Abi Al-Awja Al-Sulami April 629[213] 50 men sent to demand the allegiance of the Banu Sualym tribe to Islam[217]
  • Muslims: Most killed[217]
  • Non-Muslims: Most killed,[213] 2 captured[218]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[219]
62 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Al-Kadid) May 629 [213] To raid the Banu al-Mulawwih tribe for booty[185][215]
  • Large amount killed,[185] and 1 captured by Muslims[215]
63 Raid on Banu Layth June 629 [126] Attack Banu Layth, camels plundered[214]
  • "We killed the warriors and took the children prisoner." No numbers given, but the Muslims were "about ten men".
  • Al-Waqidi, Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A. (2011). The Life of Muhammad, pp. 369–370. London & New York: Routledge.
64 Expedition of Shuja ibn Wahb al-Asadi June 629 [213] Raid the Banu Amir tribe to plunder camels for booty[220][221]
  • Unknown
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[222]
65 Expedition of Ka’b ibn 'Umair al-Ghifari June 629 [213] Attack Banu Quda‘a tribe because Muhammad received intelligence that they had gathered a large number of men to attack the Muslim positions[218]
  • 14 Muslims killed, 1 wounded[218]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[223]
66 Battle of Mu'tah August 629 [213] Raid the inhabitants of Mut'ah, because one of Muhammad's messenger was killed by the chief of Ma’ab or Mu’tah[224]
  • Muslims: 12 killed
  • Non-Muslims: Unknown[224]
67 Expedition of Amr ibn al-As September 629 [226] To subjugate the Banu Qudah tribe, and incite the tribes friendly to Muhammad to attack them, because of a rumour that the Banu Qudah were preparing to attack Medina and to improve Muslim prestige[227][228]
  • None, Qudah tribe flees[229]
68 Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah October 629 [230] Attack the tribe of Juhaynah and raid a caravan[231][232][233]
  • None, caravan flees[233]
69 Expedition of Abi Hadrad al-Aslami 629 [234][235] To kill Rifa’ah bin Qays, because Muhammad heard they were allegedly enticing the people of Qais to fight him[235]
  • 1 beheaded,[236] 4 women captured by Muslims[237]
70 Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Khadirah) November[239] or Dec 629[231] Attack the Ghatafan tribe because he heard that they were amassing troops and were still outside the "domain of Islam"[240]
  • Some killed, some captured by Muslims[240]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[241]
71 Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Batn Edam) December 629 [239] To divert the attention from his intention of attacking Mecca, he despatched 8 men to attack a caravan passing through Edam[242]
  • 1 Muslim killed by Muslims[243][244]
72 Conquest of Mecca December 629 [239] To Conquer Mecca[246]
  • 5 killed by Muslims:[247]
  1. Abdullah b. Khatal[248]
  2. Fartana (slave girl)[249]
  3. Huwayrith b. Nafidh[247]
  4. Miqyas b. Subabah[247]
  5. Harith b. Talatil[247]
73 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Nakhla) December 629 [251] To destroy al-Uzza because Muhammad wanted "the submission of neighbouring tribes"[252] and wanted to eliminate "symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices"[253]
74 Raid of Amr ibn al-As December 629 [251] To destroy Suwa because Muhammad wanted "the submission of neighbouring tribes"[252] and wanted to eliminate "symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices"[253]
  • None[253]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[256]
75 Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali December 629 [251] To destroy Manat because Muhammad wanted "the submission of neighbouring tribes"[252] and wanted to eliminate "symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices"[253]
  • 1 women killed by Muslims[253]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[257]
  • Al-Kalbi, The Book of Idols[258]
76 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Banu Jadhimah) January 630 [251] Invite the Banu Jadhimah tribe to Islam[259]
  • Entire tribe taken prisoner, portion executed[259][260]
77 Battle of Hunayn January 630 [251] To attack the people of Hawazin and Thaqif for refusing to surrender to Muhammad and submit to Islam because "they thought that they were too mighty to admit or surrender" after the Conquest of Mecca[264]
  • Muslims: 5 killed[265]
  • Non-Muslims: 70 killed,[264] 6000 women and children captured[266]
78 Expedition of At-Tufail ibn 'Amr Ad-Dausi January 630 [251] Destroy the idol Yaguth[268] and to secure the allegiance of the Banu Daws tribe to Islam so they can lend him catapults to use in the Siege of Taif[269]
  • None[268]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[268]
79 Battle of Autas 630 [270] Defend against an attack by a league of tribes that formed an alliance to attack him. Washington Irving claims that the tribes were hostile to Muhammad and wanted to attack him because he was spreading Islam by the sword, and because the tribes feared Muhammad would attack them anyway for vengeance[271]
  • Enemy defeated, many killed by Muslims[268][272]
80 Expedition of Abu Amir Al-Ashari January 630 [3] Chase the enemies who fled from the Battle of Hunayn[275]
  • Muslims: 1 Killed
  • Non-Muslims: 9 Killed[276]
81 Expedition of Abu Musa Al-Ashari January 630 [3] Chase the enemies who fled from the Battle of Hunayn[275]
  • At least 1 killed,[277] men, women and children taken captives by Muslims[278]
82 Siege of Ta'if January 630 [279] Attack enemies who fled from the Battle of Hunayn and sought refuge in the fortress of Taif[266]
  • Muslims: 12 killed[280]
  • Non-Muslims: Unknown
83 Expedition of Uyainah bin Hisn April 630 [282] Attack the Muslim tribe of Banu Tamim for refusing to pay tax (Zakat)[283]
  • 11 men, 21 women and 30 boys, captured by Muslims[284]
  • [Quran 49:1][285][286]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[287]
84 Expedition of Qutbah ibn Amir May 630 [288] Attack the Banu Khatham tribe to capture booty[284][289]
  • Muslims: many wounded, some killed
  • Non-Muslims: many wounded, some killed, some women captured[284]
85 Expedition of Dahhak al-Kilabi June 630 [290] To call the Banu Kilab tribe to embrace Islam[284]
  • 1 killed by Muslims[284]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[291]
86 Expedition of Alqammah bin Mujazziz July 630 [292] Attack a group of Abyssinians (Ethiopians) who Muhammad suspected were pirates[284][293][294]
  • None, Ethiopians flee[293]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[293]
87 Third Expedition of Dhu Qarad July 630 [293] Muhammad sent him to take revenge for the killing of the son of Abu Dhar Ghifari at al-Ghaba[293][295]
  • None[293]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[296]
88 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib July 630 [297] Destroy al-Qullus, an idol worshipped by pagans[298]
  • Many men, women and children taken captive by Muslims[298][299]
89 Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan (Udhrah and Baliy) July 630 [301] Attack the tribes of Udhrah and Baliy, no further details[301][302]
  • Unknown
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[302]
90 Battle of Tabouk October 630 [301] Attack the Byzantine empire. Mubarakpuri claims, reason was revenge for the killing of 1 of Muhammad's ambassadors by a Christian chief of al-Balaqa, which led to the Battle of Mutah. Mubrakpuri claims this was the reason for the Battle of Tabouk also, and that there was a rumour Heraclius was preparing an attack on Muslims.[303] William Muir claims Heraclius wanted to prevent the recurrence of Muslim attacks such as the Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan against the Banu Udrah tribe.[304] A tribe that was aligned to the Byzantine Empire[305]
  • None, no enemies met[303]
91 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Dumatul Jandal) October 630 [301] Attack the Christian prince of Duma.[308]
  • 1 killed, 2 taken captive[309]
92 Expedition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb 630 [311] To demolish the idol al-Lat[312]
  • Unknown
  • [Quran 17:73]
  • Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet[313]
93 Demolition of Masjid al-Dirar 630 [314] Demolish a mosque for promoting opposition[308]
  • None (speculation that people may have been burnt[315])
  • [Quran 9:107][316]
  • Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet[317]
94 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (2nd Dumatul Jandal) April 631 [318][319] Demolish an idol called Wadd,[319][320] worshipped by the Banu Kilab tribe[321]
  • Banu Abd-Wadd and Banu Amir al-Ajdar tribe members killed by Muslims[318][319]
95 Expedition of Surad ibn Abdullah April 631 [323][324] Ordered Surad ibn Abdullah (new convert) to war against the non-Muslim tribes in his neighbourhood[323]
  • Heavy casualties, people of Jurash killed[325]
  • Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet[325]
96 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Najran) June 631 [301] Call on the people of Najran to embrace Islam or fight the Muslims[326]
  • None, Banu Harith tribe surrenders and converts to Islam[326]
  • [Quran 3:61][327]
  • Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet[328]
  • Hamidullah, Majmu'ah (Original letters of Muhammad)[329]
97 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Mudhij) December 631 [301] Attack the Banu Nakhla tribe to reduce them to submission[330]
  • 20 killed by Muslims.[330]
98 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Hamdan) 631 [301] To call the people of Hamdan to embrace Islam[332]
  • None[332]
  • Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet[333]
99 Demolition of Dhul Khalasa April 632 [323] Demolish the Temple of Dhul Khalasa worshipped by the Bajila and Khatham tribes[334]
  • 300 killed by Muslims[334][335]
100 Expedition of Usama bin Zayd May 632 [337] Invade Palestine and attack Moab and Darum[338]
  • Local population "slaughtered" by Muslims, "destroying, burning and taking as many captives as they could" according to Moshe Gil of Cambridge University[338]

Notes

  • Life of Mahomet by William Muir maybe used on WorldHeritage
  • Ibn Hisham edited the biography of Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq.[341] Ibn Ishaq's work is lost and is now only known in the recensions of Ibn Hisham and al-Tabari.[342] Therefore when Ibn Hisham is mentioned as a primary source, so is Ibn Ishaq

References

  1. ^ a b c   (free online)
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 127. (online)
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  311. ^ Tabari, Al (25 Sep 1990), The last years of the Prophet (translated by Isma'il Qurban Husayn), State University of New York Press, p. 46,   Note: Source says this happened in the same year as the Battle of Tabuk which occurred in October 630
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Main sources

  • Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2002), When the Moon Split, DarusSalam,  
  • Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications . Note: This is the free version available on Google Books
  • Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al (2005), The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications,  
  • Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Imam (1998). Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād. Oxford University Press. 
  • Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam.  
  • Muir, William (1861), The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, Smith, Elder & Co 
  • Haykal, Hussain (1 Jun 2010), The Life of Mohammed, Islamic Book Trust, p. 477,  
  • Gabriel, Richard A. (2008), Muhammad, Islams first general, University of Oklahoma Press,  
  • Muḥammad Ibn ʻAbd al-Wahhāb, Imam (2003). Mukhtaṣar zād al-maʻād. Darussalam publishers Ltd.  
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