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First League of Armed Neutrality

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Title: First League of Armed Neutrality  
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Subject: American Revolutionary War, Affair of Fielding and Bylandt, Diplomacy in the American Revolutionary War, History of the Netherlands, War/Selected anniversaries/December 21
Collection: 1780S, 1780S in Denmark, 1780S in France, 1780S in Portugal, 1780S in Sweden, 1780S in the Dutch Republic, 1780S in the Kingdom of Naples, 18Th Century in France, 18Th-Century Military Alliances, 19Th Century in France, American Revolutionary War, Diplomacy During the American Revolutionary War, History of Denmark, History of Sweden, History of the Netherlands, History of the Ottoman Empire, Military History of Prussia, Politics of the Russian Empire, Russia–united States Relations, Treaties of Denmark–norway, Treaties of the Dutch Republic, Treaties of the Holy Roman Empire, Treaties of the Kingdom of Naples, Treaties of the Kingdom of Portugal, Treaties of the Kingdom of Prussia, Treaties of the Kingdom of Sicily, Treaties of the Ottoman Empire, Treaties of the Russian Empire
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First League of Armed Neutrality

The first League of Armed Neutrality was an alliance of European naval powers between 1780 and 1783 which was intended to protect neutral shipping against the Royal Navy's wartime policy of unlimited search of neutral shipping for French contraband.[1]

Empress Catherine II of Russia began the first League with her declaration of Russian armed neutrality on 11 March (28 February, Old Style), 1780, during the War of American Independence. She endorsed the right of neutral countries to trade by sea with nationals of belligerent countries without hindrance, except in weapons and military supplies. Russia would not recognize blockades of whole coasts, but only of individual ports, and only if a belligerent's warship were actually present or nearby. The Russian navy dispatched three squadrons to the Mediterranean, Atlantic, and North Sea to enforce this decree.[2]

Denmark-Norway and Sweden, accepting Russia's proposals for an alliance of neutrals, adopted the same policy towards shipping, and the three countries signed the agreement forming the League. They remained otherwise out of the war, but threatened joint retaliation for every ship of theirs searched by a belligerent. By the time the Treaty of Paris ended the war in 1783, Prussia, the Holy Roman Empire, the Netherlands, Portugal, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and the Ottoman Empire had all become members.

As the Royal Navy outnumbered all their fleets combined, the alliance as a military measure was what Catherine later called it, an "armed nullity". Diplomatically, however, it carried greater weight; France and the United States of America were quick to proclaim their adherence to the new principle of free neutral commerce. Britain—which did not—still had no wish to antagonize Russia, and avoided interfering with the allies' shipping. While both sides of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War tacitly understood it as an attempt to keep the Netherlands out of the League, Britain did not officially regard the alliance as hostile.[3] Throughout the war most of the naval supplies of the Royal Navy continued to come from the Baltic Sea.

It was followed in the Napoleonic Wars by the Second League of Armed Neutrality which was massively less successful and ended after the British victory at the Battle of Copenhagen.[4]

References

  1. ^ Armed Neutralities - International maritime law in the eighteenth century
  2. ^ http://minaev.blogspot.com/2009/03/march-11-in-russian-history-armed.html
  3. ^ Encyclopedia of American foreign policy, Volume 1, Editors Alexander DeConde, Richard Dean Burns, Fredrik Logevall, Simon and Schuster, 2001, ISBN 978-0-684-80657-0
  4. ^ http://www.milhist.dk/englandskrigene/england/introuk.html

External links

  • Russia's declaration of Armed Neutrality -- from a Russian naval history
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